East Meets West’s (EMW) Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program has built 110 piped rural water systems, and more than 500 pour flush septic tank latrines as well. As we no longer have internal funding for the latrine program, we seek $25,000 in PWX fun
The East Meets West Foundation (EMWF) Clean Water Program has been underway for more than fifteen years, and so far has constructed 109 piped and treated water systems to communities ranging from about 150 – 1,000 households (HH), with an average family size of five.
The program recently expanded to include a sanitary component that provides a modest subsidy of construction costs to encourage households to build pour-flush latrines, complemented activity by hand washing promotion. EMWF also carries out selected studies to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of rural water supply provision, including both technical (e.g., water quality treatment) and management (e.g., private sector management) studies to improve the cost effectiveness, operational efficiency, and community health impact of our facilities and services.
LocationDa Nang, Central Coastal Region, Vietnam
Primary Focus: Sanitation - Households
Secondary Focus: Capacity Building
People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 0
Safe drinking water is already being provided to the proposed beneficiaries under a separately funded clean water program.
School Children Getting Water: 0
Safe drinking water is already being provided to the proposed beneficiaries under a separately funded clean water program.
People Getting Sanitation: 5,000
1,000 household latrines will be built, which for a typical family size of five people, would provide improved sanitary latrine services to about 5,000 people.
People Getting Other Benefits: 5,000
5,000 people would get hygiene and sanitation behavioral change training, under EMW's recently initiated hygiene and sanitation behavioral change program, focusing on appropriate hand washing behavior.
Start Date: 2008-09-15
Completion Date: 2009-07-15
EMWF has already carried out repeated consultation with beneficiary communities and local authorities (hamlet, CPC, DPC, and PPC) to plan and implement pipe treated water systems, and more recently, household and school sanitary latrines.
EMW conducts a series of consultation visits to assess physical and cost feasibility, and willingness and ability of beneficiaries to co-finance (cash and in-kind) latrine construction, and be responsible for all maintenance and repair costs, in every community we work in.
Having already worked closely with the local authorities to build a piped water system in the beneficiary community, any necessary approval and cooperation necessary for the sanitary latrine program are readily obtained from the relevant authorities.
Promotion of both sanitary latrines (using modest subsidies) and appropriate hand washing promotion is conducted by EMWF staff at both older water system sites, as well as all new sites starting in the third quarter of 2008, which means only where water systems financed by the Global Partnership for Output Based Aid (GPOBA, administered by World Bank) are also being constructed.
The piped water systems are important to support the sanitation / hygiene program, as piped water will be available in essentially all homes that will choose to build sanitary latrines.
What are the basic design features? The basic sanitary latrine is a one-hole, pour flush double vault (septic tank) latrine, with a shelter (typically brick ventilated walls, and a corrugated iron roof) for privacy. However, an increasing number of HHs prefer to upgrade their basic latrines to a bathroom that contains the latrine and bathing facilities, along with improved aesthetics (tiled walls are popular for those who can afford them). The EMW design is based on designs that were promoted by International Development Enterprises (IDE) during their recent multi-year market-based hygienic latrine promotion project in Quang Nam.
The EMW design is based on designs that were promoted by International Development Enterprises (IDE) during their recent multi-year market-based hygienic latrine promotion project in Quang Nam. EMW’s latrines have been constructed mainly in Quang Nam Province, which is also the main focus of the EMW Clean Water Program thus far.
The EMW program takes advantage of the availability of trained latrine builders whom IDE had trained-up during their program, as well as IDE’s promotional and marketing activities that helped to identify and expand the market demand for hygienic latrines.
How about alternative latrine designs? – EMW also intends to initiate a pilot program for the promotion of Eco San latrines. Ecological sanitation (also called 'EcoSan') is structured on recycling principles that keep the eco-cycle in the sanitation process closed. This system uses human excreta as a resource: human waste is processed on site until they are free of pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms. After this process, the sanitized excreta can be used for agricultural purposes.
EcoSan toilets have several advantages over standard pour-flush latrines, including an EcoSan toilet can solve problems like bad odors, flies and poor hygiene, and is a comfortable and safe alternative to pour flush latrines. However, as this is not a common design in Vietnam, EMW will promote the EcoSan toilet as a useful alternative to the standard pour-flush latrine. The extent to which they are financed under this project will depend upon the willing of families to adopt the new technology.
What is the typical cost of a HH latrine, and how does the co-financing arrangement work? The typical cost of a basic pour-flush latrine with a septic tank is about US$125 (about VND 2.1 million), reflecting the recent significant increase in the price of goods, materials and skilled labor in Vietnam, due at least in part to the booming local economy. EMW provides a subsidy of 20% of the cost of a basic pour/flush latrine as a financial stimulant to encourage families (especially low-income families) to build improved sanitary latrines. The EMW subsidy is 20% of the total cost, or about VND 420,000, or about $25/HH. Sometimes people choose to build upscale versions that cost up to $250. However, all costs above the $25 subsidy will be covered in its entirety by the HH beneficiary.
The proposed sanitary latrine program (complemented by our hygiene behavioral change program focusing on hand-washing) will be carried out in a single phase from about September through February, depending upon funding availability.
The community mobilization process includes several steps, all of which have been carried out many times by trained, experienced EMWF staff. For example, in Tam Anh Nam Commune, EMW held meetings with the Commune Peoples Committee (CPC) on project objectives, action plans, and selection criteria for potential beneficiaries.
After visiting every household for verification of interest and willing to co-finance, meetings were held with local beneficiaries to discuss and agree upon project orientation, role and responsibilities of each party, and implementation process. Through these meetings, EMW assesses the level of willingness to participate and co-finance facilities by the beneficiary households.
MOUs are then signed with CPC confirming roles and responsibilities. The Project Steering Committee was set up with the participation of Vice Chairman of PC, the Head of Commune Health Station, and the heads of project hamlets and the Women’s Union.
The CPC works with hamlet level officials and individual households to prepare the list of families potentially interested in building partially subsidized sanitary latrines.
EMW water team staff then visits individual households to verify the interest of potential beneficiaries households. The subsequent meetings and technical training activities with selected beneficiaries is then conducted, including project orientation, fully informing potentially interested HHs of their roles and responsibilities, and discussing details of the implementation process.
An Agreement / Registration letter between EMW and interested HHs is then signed officially The Project Management Board coordinates with EMW assigned staff who will guide and the implementation of follow up activities during project implementation. When the construction is completed successfully and meets project quality control standards, the subsidy payment will be made directly to the HHs by EMW, witnessed by CPC and the PMB.
The hygiene education, capacity building, job generation aspects of this proposed program are already mentioned above. The extensive work carried out by IDE in Quang Nam Province was beneficial in carrying out the IEC work in many areas where EMW intends to use the PWX funding, which expedited the process of familiarizing potential customers with the benefits of improved latrines and hand washing.
EMW anticipates a substantial expansion of this program, as suitable funding sources are identified. Unmet demand for improved sanitation in Quang Nam (and some of the surrounding provinces) remains high, and EMW intends to help meet and further stimulate that demand.
EMW’s latrines have been constructed mainly in Quang Nam Province, which is also the main focus of the EMW Clean Water Program thus far. The EMW program takes advantage of the availability of trained latrine builders whom IDE had trained-up during their program, as well as IDE’s promotional and marketing activities that helped to identify and expand the market demand for hygienic latrines.
What are the future plans for expanding the Sanitary Latrine program? At this time, the overall EMW sanitary latrine program is still in its nascent stage. While in theory, EMW would prefer to promote and subsidize latrines for all families participating in the Clean Water Program, funding sources need to be identified to support this goal. So far, only $10,000 for constructing latrines has been made available from unrestricted funds. No funding is available from EMW’s primary donor (Atlantic Philanthropies) for Grass Roots Programs such as this, so EMW fund raisers may be requested to seek other funding sources, such as Blue Planet Run, to provide supplemental support for the sanitary latrine promotion program.
This proposed program will also support a substantial capacity strengthening program to expand job opportunities for latrine builders, including on-the job training. Trainees will be instructed in technical and cost aspects of the program, empowering them to establish their own businesses to expand their operations beyond this specific funding cycle.
This $10 is the annual maintenance cost of a single family latrine, for cleaning and periodic de-sludging. During the community mobilization and construction phases, latrine builders and interested householders will be trained to carry out periodic latrine inspections, and to identify when latrines should be de-sludged, and assess the need for any potential maintenance or repairs. Latrine builders will be encouraged to develop their own latrine construction businesses.
Maintenance Cost: $10
Prior art before metrics
1,000 household latrines will be built at an average cost of about $125 each. Households participating in the program will receive a $25 subsidy from the program as an incentive to build a household latrine, and they pay the remaining average cost of $100 for a completed latrine. EMW will cover the overhead cost of $25 to provide technical assistance for design, construction supervision, inspection, quality control for construction, will also implement an IEC program to encourage sanitary latrine adaptation, and promote hand-washing with soap among the participating communities. HHs wishing to build higher quality superstructures will bear the total incremental cost of that improved design.
Co Funding Amount: $12,500
EMW, to cover the cost of EMW water and sanitation program staff to supervise the program, and provide training to latrine builders, and hygiene and sanitation training for participating households.
Community Contribution Amount: $50,000
The community will contribute the base cost of $100 per unit for the basic latrine construction. PWX will contribute $25 to cover the proposed subsidy as an incentive to encourage HHs to participate in the program. EMW will provide the $25 cost of construction supervision, quality control and IEC promotion.