This project will provide sanitation facilities, household latrines and hand washing devices, and hygiene behavior change (HBC) using an Output-Based Aid (OBA) approach to 2 targeted districts in one of three provinces.
Rural sanitation coverage in Cambodia is among the lowest worldwide, with coverage less than 16% leaving over 11 million Cambodians without access to improved sanitation. Poor sanitation in Cambodia is responsible for roughly 9.4 million cases of diarrheal diseases, which result in an estimated 12,000 deaths per year. In fact, diarrheal diseases are the number one cause of sickness and death among Cambodian children. Beyond health, economic impacts due to poor sanitation and hygiene are calculated at $450 million USD, or 7.2 percent of the country’s GDP (WSP, 2008).
The typical approach used in Cambodia to improve sanitation often focuses on providing subsidized latrine hardware to households in exchange for a contribution of cash or construction labor. Consequently, only the better-off households who can afford to contribute benefit from the subsidy, which does not necessarily result in a change to their defecation habits, as years later hardware has been found unused and latrines abandoned (Robinson, 2007; Sok & Catalla, 2009), which is especially common when the end-user’s preferences or desires are not taken into account (Jenkins & Sugden, 2006). Accordingly, simply making latrines cheaper does not increase sustainable demand, and in terms of supply, nor does it promote an effective supply chain accessible by the end-user.
EMW and its partners recognize that the communities in Takeo, Kandal, and Svay Rieng are not among the poorest of the poor; however, their sanitation coverage rates are still below the low national average (see chart in full proposal).
LocationVillages TBD, Kandal, Svay Rieng, or Takeo Province, Cambodia
Primary Focus: Sanitation - Community
Secondary Focus: Capacity Building
People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 0
School Children Getting Water: 0
People Getting Sanitation: 1,620
1620 people in 300 households will receive improved sanitation (includes women and children)
People Getting Other Benefits: 1,620
Leadership capacity is developed through a series of trainings that promote strong skills sets (e.g. economic literacy, sanitation, and HBC) as well as grounded knowledge in HBC awareness and activities.
Start Date: 2011-09-01
Completion Date: 2012-04-21
To effectively address poor access to sanitation and Hygiene Behavior Change (HBC), EMW’s approach starts with authenticating end-user’s preferences to critically establish an effective sanitation and HBC campaign. To this end, EMW and its partners are targeting ID-1 and ID-2 level groups based on the ID-Poor data established by Ministry of Planning because these groups tend to be the most vulnerable in Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and sanitation marketing models, which at the same time, happens to be a key strength of EMW’s OBA approach to develop innovative financing and program service delivery. By selectively targeting ID-1 and ID-2 groups, EMW envisages to combine the strengths of its partners in Oxfam America and WaterSHED-Cambodia to:
Conduct two (2) field study trips, one in Vietnam for Oxfam America and WaterSHED-Cambodia to study EMW’s sanitation model in the Mekong Delta region and the other in each of the three targeted provinces in Cambodia to determine the pilot model for sanitation work in Cambodia.
Establish a Community Wealth Fund, which is used in conjunction with Saving for Change micro-financing model to either provide rebates (about $20 USD) for hardware costs to only ID-1 or ID-2 Poor groups and/or expand micro-financing into new target districts to increase the reach and scale of the project.
Educate and build capacity of animators within Saving for Change groups in sanitation and HBC to establish community-led awareness and stimulate demand for sanitation products.
Launch HBC campaign goal to establish Open Defecation Free (ODF) zone with modules in hand washing with soap, consistent latrine usage, and drinking only safe water.
Develop and implement promotional HBC campaigns on market-based research.
-Construction and installation of 300 household sanitation facilities.
-HBC program delivery for 300 households in 2 targeted rural districts in one of three provinces including Kandal, Savay Rieng, or Takeo provinces.
(please see attached proposal for more details)
Oxfam’s Saving for Change is an innovative community-led micro-financing model, which serves as an instrumental tool that organizes community members to participate even at the lowest levels of income. All groups are self-formed and leadership is selected by consensus. Leaders, called animators, are then trained in various subjects including sanitation, HBC, economic literacy and subsequently transfer the knowledge back to the group to implement a community-driven savings and loan program. Each person saves for a targeted purpose and the collective savings are then loaned to each member of the group, in this case for latrine systems. The entire process is managed by the membership and the outcomes (latrines, hand washing devices and HBC) are also fully owned by the members, hence community.
EMW aims to leverage this innovative approach with its strategic partners in Oxfam America and WaterSHED-Cambodia while working closely with the Ministry of Rural Development, which is responsible for the Sanitation and Ministry of Health which shares the responsibility for hygiene education.
Economic literacy, thrift and micro-finance are subjects that each member fully participates in and uses as a vehicle to leverage understanding about sanitation and HBC.
Since members leverage the Community Wealth Fund (CWF) and repay back into the fund with interest, the CWF actually grows over time. The loan default rate based on Saving Change Model is less than 1% over the past 5 years. The vision is to leverage the CWF to catalyze new areas/villages to bring sanitation and micro-financing to new areas.
Maintenance Cost: $0
Prior art before metrics
-Field visits to Vietnam/Cambodia: 3000
-Community Wealth Fund: 6000
-HBC Campaign and Capacity Building for Saving for Change groups: 4500
-Community Contribution: 4500
-M&E and Admin: 1500
Co Funding Amount:
Community Contribution Amount: $4,500
Saving for Change instills a savings and loan scheme that requires each member to “pre-finance” the cost of a latrine system. After capacity building workshops, groups decide to target latrine systems as a “communitywide goal” which requires members to save up to the full amount of the cost of a system, approximately $150 per system. Only in some extreme cases, the community wealth fund can be used for poorest of the poor where a rebate of about $20 is introduced. All labor and materials are sourced locally.
Fund Requested: $15,000
Implementing Organization: Oxfam America, WaterSHED-Cambodia
A joint initiative between East Meets West Foundation (EMW), Oxfam America’s Saving for Change, and WaterSHED-Cambodia brings together a robust partnership with a set of rich, diverse experiences in community-led micro-financing, market-based approaches to hygiene behavior change, and over 23 years of social innovation in scaled-program impact and sustainability.
The strength of Oxfam America’s Saving for Change program complements the deep market-based knowledge of WaterSHED-Cambodia in promoting HBC and strong supply chain efficacy to ensure that target communities not only have financial access to sanitation hardware and services, but also a strategic match-making of demand with strong supply-side options. WaterSHED-Cambodia possesses extensive market research knowledge including sourcing, distribution channels and consumer end retailers to improve the efficiency, cost and quality of sanitation supply goods. In short, the vision of this partnership brings together diverse NGOs to work together in enabling Cambodia’s rural provinces to reach its MDG targets, particularly environmental sustainability for rural areas.