This electric pumping system will actually serve 3 communities that have limited access to water: La Perla, Cacao and Los Caraos. Although many homes already have latrines, 35 homes, one church and one community center require sustainable sanitation.
Las Caraos, La Perla and El Cacao are rural communities about 2-6 km from the town of Achuapa. These communities are located on a flat plain area in a dry tropical region.
The people of these three communities work mainly as subsistence farmers and/or in domestic labors in town, working for others. There is a small percentage of craftspeople/professionals, such as shoemakers or teachers. About 30% of the households are headed by women. The estimated monthly income per family is $80US.
Most families do have sanitation facilities, in fact La Perla was previously assisted by El Porvenir some 2-3 years ago. Other initiatives have also helped in this regard, leaving just 37 latrines lacking.
Water is abundant in these communities, unfortunately, the water quality, is not adequate, for the most part. The water is proposed to be pumped from a borehole near the school. The water has been tested and is potable. The well also has a production capacity of 55 gallons per minute and is sufficient for drinking water needs in these communities.
These communities are motivated to improve their situation and approached El Porvenir for support to build latrines and the water system. They are willing to contribute the labor to dig the holes, line the holes, and build the exterior structures. They will also dig ditches, lay pipe and build the distribution tank. They have also committed to contribute monetarily towards the project cost at least 10% of the materials cost, in kind or cash.
LocationLos Caraos, Cacao, La Perla, León, Nicaragua
Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Households
Secondary Focus: Sanitation - Community
People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 684
Data from municipality census.
School Children Getting Water: 0
This is not a school project per se, although the schools in the area will get a spigot in this initial stage. Data not currently available for the school populations of each.
People Getting Sanitation: 142
1 community center
Data from Municipal government, confirmed by El Porvenir staff with community leaders.
The remaining population has existing sanitation in adequate conditions.
People Getting Other Benefits: 684
Hygiene and sanitary education workshops will be carried out to ensure improved health in the community as well as proper use and maintenance of latrines and water. Through the construction of the project, masonry and plumbing skills are acquired that will help with the long term maintenance. Special emphasis will be given to the rotation of the pits: emptying them safely, moving the superstructure and continual use of drying material in the pits. Continuing hygiene education related to the water project will take place as well.
Start Date: 2013-11-30
Completion Date: 2014-09-30
El Porvenir has over 20 years of experience helping rural Nicaraguan communities build appropriate technology (wells, water systems, latrines, community washing stations, and fuel efficient stoves) as well as providing communities with the tools they need to manage their water, sanitation and forestry resources. The methodology of El Porvenir is based on three key principles:
(a) community empowerment through active participation and ownership in all aspects of the project,
(b) creation of sustainable organizations in the community to manage resources in the long term, and
(c) focus on appropriate technology made from low-cost locally available materials that can be maintained by the community.
El Porvenir projects are demand driven, i.e. the local office of all Nicaraguan staff responds to requests from the community. Once staff verifies the need and feasability of the project. Funds are sought. The municipal authorities and the local community also contributes towards project materials usually by purchasing or collecting local materials. When the remaining funds are available, the construction phase can begin. The community learns how to build and maintain water and sanitation infrastructure themselves.
-Construction materiales are purchased and transported to the community by truck and animals
-El Porvenir provides training and technical assistance to the community in construction, maintenance and repair of latrines
-The community builds latrines (hand dig two pits per latrine to depth of 6 feet/2 meters, line with rocks, bricks or stones, install precast concrete slab and box seat, create walls and roof from zinc panels, install ventilation tube). These latrines are part of a pilot double-pit VIP latrine program (the standard for Nicaragua at this time are single pit VIP latrines which are of questionable value in terms of sustainability once the pit fills). The superstructure shells are made of zinc and metal, so as to be easily reused (and moved) when the first pit fills. In a similar way, both pits can be reused as one fills. In pilots, we have found the cost to be approximately 20% more than the single pit model (except in the very early models) and provides 33% more volume initially. The first pilots have had several families switch to the second empty pit and back to the first pit successfully. As for the water system, the community members will dig ditches, lay pipe, help install the electric pump, construct the distribution tank and carry out all plumbing work.
This is a one phase project.
The beneficiaries have met with the El Porvenir Promoter and agreed to carry out, use, and maintain the latrines and water system as per the 10 norms on the use of latrines and water. This includes keeping the latrines and the water spigots in good condition, preventing contamination of the surrounding area, and understanding how this will improve their overall health. The community will be trained in community organizing techniques and will have a potable water and sanitation committee functioning. El Porvenir uses a train the trainer technique to diffuse information in the community. Latrines are built on the property of each family, so each family owns their own latrine through their labor of building it. Community ownership is felt by the community through its identification of its problem, request of the solution, their monetary contribution (at least 10%) and their involvement in the sweat equity of the project.
El Porvenir has signed MOUs with our municipal governments. In the case of Achuapa, the government supports the project materials cost at 15%. The local goverment has been very cooperative in carrying out a lot of the investigation needed for information for this project.
Health and hygiene education: The community learns how to reduce water and sanitation related illnesses through good hygiene practices. -Identify and train local hygiene and health promoters from the community to reinforce hygiene trainings on an ongoing basis -Carry out household visits and community workshops to help the community to identify risky behaviors and learn good hygiene practices. Topics covered include: Definition of hygiene, 10 rules for using latrines, Why sanitation is important, Water and sanitation related diseases, The cycle of contamination, Why hand-washing is important, How to maintain and dispose of garbage, How to use and maintain wells and community washing stations, How to treat and use water, Sources of water contamination, Role and responsibilities of Community Water and Sanitation Committee members and the Importance of planting trees. -Create and air health and hygiene announcements on local radio stations to reinforce community health learning and to reach a larger audience. -Organize community clean up days to reinforce training about environmental sanitation and waste management -Collect data from local clinics and health centers on incidence of water and sanitation related diseases (diarrhea, skin infections etc.)
Reforestation and watershed protection activities will follow the construction as well.
In order to measure the impact of our projects, we collect data several times a year from clinics serving rural districts where we have a high concentration of projects: number of visits due to diarrhea, etc. As the number decreases we feel that hygiene education has been effective. In previous years, the data seemed to support this hypothesis, although the Ministry of Health has changed their data collection methodology unfortunately, and now the data is not consistent. For more information on the double pit latrine initiative, please see the discussion, simplistic design document and photos at: http://peerwater.org/apps/189-3-Double-Pit-Latrines-Cooperativa-Ismael-Castillo/qandas
Tariffs will be approximately $2.60 per family per month which should cover the electricity and maintenance costs of the project upon completion.
Maintenance Cost: $4,800
Our water and sanitation metrics that we measure are:
1. Municipal coverage for sustainable sanitation and water %. (As Achuapa is not in our usual operating area, we do not have baseline data as of yet.). May not make much sense in this context, as that is a measure we are looking at every 3-5 years.
2. % contribution from the community towards the project. (expect minimum 10%)
3. Reduction in WASH related illnesses (diarrhea) in the municipality, but since this has been difficult to measure with confidence, we use a proxy measure: presence of fecal coliforms in water sources (Petrifilm or other measuring source).