: Greenovation Hub

Discussion Forum

Landfill implications, Well Quality Testing, Case Study

By Community Water Center Posted on Wed 09 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

This sounds like a very interesting project. It's very informative to hear about rural water issues in China, as we work on rural water quality issues in California. I have a few general questions:
1. Is there any plan to study the impacts of the landfill itself. In your documents you discuss the proximity to this potential contaminating activity. Is there a plan to test waters near the landfill compared to those further away?

2. Like Rajesh, I was a little unclear on the exact plan in each of the 4 sites, but if I understand correctly, at least part of the plan involves rehabilitating an existing well. Beyond water quality testing, have you conducted additional engineering analyses of the quality of that well, and its long-term sustainability?

3. From what I gather from your responses, these rural areas go quite un-noticed in many cases. You responded to the "scaling up" question previously, but I am curious to hear more about how your organization can track the lessons from this project and use it as case studies for future projects.

4. In addition to the technology itself, can you describe the kind of public education efforts that you may do in relation to each project, so that villagers learn about how to decrease exposure, when necessary?

Thanks,
Carolina

Landfill implications, Well Quality Testing, Case Study

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Thu 10 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hi Carolina,
Thanks for your questions. To be honest, I never thought there is water quality issue in rural California. I took it for granted that it should be clean in the States--maybe except Superfund sites. But your work reminds me that even in post-industrialized America this can be a problem. You can imagine the situation in industrializing China. Anyway, here below is my answers and please feel free to let me know if you have other questions.
Best,
lican

1. We only tested the sources of drinking water (in Dazhangzhuang case it is shallow wells) and did not do any testing about surface water quality, no matter near the landfill or what. These are quite different. Usually ground water quality is better than it of surface water. But you are right that as an environmental group we want to do something about surface water quality and pollution--not only drinking water quality--and try to find whether there is a causal relationship between (in Dazhangzhuang case the landfill’s) pollution and drinking water quality. If so, we will tell the villagers and see if they want to complain to the government with the evidence. Even if they don’t, we can record it in our report and make it to the public. We are now developing another project to make individuals and organizations more easily to test water quality.

2. We find different solutions to each of the 4 sites. For dazhangzhuang case we will use an existing deep well. For Maoweizi school in Henan province, local technicians will dig a new well because there is no water source at all. For 2 sites in Hubei province, we find 2 different equipments (one collective water treatment and one household filter) to solve different quality problems.

In Dazhangzhuang like what you say, we already consulted villagers and an official from water resource bureau. They told us that the well was dug several years by local government. Actually taking samples from the deep well is a way to test whether it is still usable because we had to use a pump to get water. It turned out positive. We also managed to have local technician to assess the feasibility of using the well as the new source water and they suggested to do so and also to build a cement water tank and buy several powerful electric pumps. The deep well and the cement container should be quite sustainable.

3. “One glass of clean water” project started in 2012. Our short-term plan is to do 100 cases in China in several years. We planned to do 4 cases in the first year in order to see if we can find the solution model. Now we think that we pretty much know how to continue the project after the first year’s work. The solution we found include 5 steps: investigation, professional quality testing, equipments searching and installation, operation and maintenance, and network building.

We did not have much resource to raise public awareness of this problem and promote our project. Since the solution model is confirmed, the next step of this project will focus more on project promotion or scale-up.

We think helping those communities with their drinking water problem is kind of service at first. Some communities need the service. Equipments producers and donors can provide the service. G:Hub, together with other NGOs, can be the coordinator of the service. But those service demanders and suppliers do not know we are initiating such project. Therefore we will devote some efforts in promoting the project and developing tools and platforms for them and for others who can provide information and help. Here is a brief plan about what we will do in the future:

a. we will produce a report on water pollution and drinking water problem in rural areas and make it public to raise public awareness of this problem, hoping more service demanders can be identified and more help can be offered.

b. we will use our website as an information platform, allowing anyone to provide information about service demanders and showing the investigation results we do, including the problem, the possible choices of equipments and the money need, so that people or companies can help with money or equipments.

c. we will work with local NGOs to get more information about service demanders. We are now developing a guide of how to do investigation and then will provide some training for them. Thus they can do some investigation on drinking water problems in rural areas while doing their other projects.

d. we will work with the industrial association of drinking water technology and equipments to promote the project, hoping those service suppliers can provide help, including donating some equipments or at least give us technical support. We actually already contacted them and their response is positive. There are also some equipment producers who showed their willing to join us together to help those communities. We will find more.

e. we will use social media to promote the project among the public. We put a picture of the landfill near Dazhangzhuang on the mini blog and got a lot of response. So we will better use social media in future work.

4. We post water quality testing results in villages so that they can know what their drinking water’s problem is. We talk to them about how to avoid further exposure to polluted environment. This is quite direct and simple for single village.

For large scale education, we already produced the content of a little book about drinking water quality. In this little book, we explain the 106 indicators in China’s drinking water sanitation standard, including their physical and chemical characters, their possible source and their health consequences. Anyone who gets this little book can somehow know more about drinking water safety issues. We plan to print it out in 2013 and spread it to communities and other NGOs.

We will organize at least one activity for villages and schools in which we implement our project to share their experience in equipment maintenance, and water resources protection. We will provide trainings about water, health and pollution to those representatives in the activity.

Our local partners also do their education project in these communities if they want. We encourage them to do so and will work together to improve communities’ ability to protect themselves.

Sources of Financing

By East Meets West Foundation Posted on Tue 22 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

G-Hub’s profile indicates a budget of USD 180,000 for water supply and USD 350,000 for non-water activities. Could you tell us a little bit about your present sources of financing?
Per
East Meets West

Sources of Financing

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Sat 26 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Currently we mainly got sponsorship from various foundations in China and the world. We also have small parts of financing from individuals and the governments. We hope that we can raise considerable part of the money from individuals and business in the future.

Implementation Capacity

By East Meets West Foundation Posted on Tue 22 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

A final question
G-Hub’s website indicates that you work on a great variety of issues from the global level (climate change and Antarctic Ocean preservation) through the national level (sustainable finance) down to the very local village water supply (a glass of water). How is G-Hub organized to handle these diverse areas? Who are the people working on “a glass of water” and what background do they have?
Many thanks in advance to your answers and comments.
Per
East Meets West

Implementation Capacity

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Sat 26 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

G:Hub has one water program and one policy center. The climate change, Antarctic preservation and sustainable finance are 3 projects of the policy center. As the name indicates, the center mainly focuses on policy research, organizing workshops and promoting/advocating relevant issues. The One Glass of Clean Water project under water program is more like environmental rescue. Thus, G:Hub is trying to address environmental problems in the international/national level and local level. There is also a communication and fundraising team in G:Hub that is in charge of communication and fundraising issues.

Liu lican, He Shan and Chen Fangzhou are working for this project.

Liu lican. Master in Political Science at the University of Wisconsin, Lican has worked for the International Center for Communication Development (ICCD), Internews’ office in China and as the manager and consultant of environmental health and climate change program. He has been a TV reporter, producing political and economic news in primary news program in Shenzhen TV station for several years. Lican worked as the media officer and campaigner at Greenpeace East Asia and is an expert on toxics reduction, water pollution, and environmental information disclosure in China.

He Shan. Graduated from Wuhan University, major in Geographical Information System (GIS) and minor in Law, He shan worked in Alxa SEE association focusing on desertification. With a genuine interest in web2.0, He Shan believes the innovation of science and technology can bring change to the nature. Currently her major responsibility at Greenovation Hub Water team is communications, building online and new media channels to boost public awareness through adapting social media and grafting GIS technology.

Chen Fangzhou. Fangzhou graduated from Australia University of Technology Sydney (UTS), majored in Science in Environmental Biology. Fangzhou has been engaged in Green River Environment protection Upper Yangtze River Garbage Recycling Project. At Greenovation Hub Water team, he is responsible for filed investigation and scouting trips of the polluted villages.

capacity building logistics

By Community Water Center Posted on Fri 01 Feb 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hi Greeninnovation Hub,

Welcome! I am very excited to see a China project here. The work you do is great, and I would like to share some of my project experiences in China that may be of help to you. I was involved in laying the groundwork for feasibility analysis of implementing ecosan and biogas projects in the outskirt villages of Beijing in Summer 2010 under support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Public Service Center.

1. Village demographics
In the two villages I worked with, I realized quickly that creating a project that would be sustainable in which community residents would take ownership of the technology with knowledge of maintenance, operation, fixing, replacing, etc. would be very difficult due to village demographics. In my experience, the villages I worked with comprised mostly of older people in their retirement ages and maybe some grandchildren in elementary school. This is a problem because there are few adults in the village anymore, because they tend to migrate to the urban areas, so community capacity and skills are disappearing quickly (ie brain-rain). What are the backgrounds of the community members you anticipate in training & what is your plan for including the involvement of a

2. Local government buy-in
Given the strong presence and decision making power of local government in a lot of villages, my project was often delayed because of unexpected bureaucratic hurdles. How will you work with the local government in the village to implement projects like well drilling?

Looking forward to hearing your response! Good luck with your project.

capacity building logistics

By Community Water Center Posted on Fri 01 Feb 2013, almost 10 years ago

Sorry, my internet flaked out. To finish the question in #1: What are the backgrounds of the community members you anticipate in training & what is your plan for including the involvement of a diverse set of stakeholders?

capacity building logistics

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Fri 01 Feb 2013, almost 10 years ago

Dear Huang Shen,

Thanks for your encouragement and questions. It is always good to hear your experience in China. Please give us more suggestions and advice so that we can better develop our project. Here is my response to your questions.
Best,
G:Hub

1. You are right that now young and middle-aged villagers are moving fast to cities in China. Sometimes we want to confirm the number of people we can help in one village. But even villagers cannot 100% tell how many people are actually living in their villages. And another problem is that those who are still staying in villages are usually the old and less knowledgeable residents. So we always want to find equipments that are easy to operate and maintain. For example, in Aijiagou village in Hubei province, we tested 2 kinds of equipments and both of them are good. Then after discussing with villagers we decided to use the one that is really easy to use though it is more expensive than another one.

For the training, our normal way is to find village committee members (village cadres) to help coordinate the project in their villages. Village cadres are usually middle-aged and have some basic knowledge. Since we also help rural schools, the principals are naturally the people who will be in charge of operation and maintenance. We will provide trainings for them and for villagers who are active and want to participate in the operation as well. The latter can be veterans, house wives, and villages’ "able men."

The plan to involve various stakeholders needs a lot of texts. It is actually an important part in our 2013 project proposal. Here I will only talk about logics. Our activity is one kind of service. There is need (villagers and rural children), supply (donors, experts, equipment suppliers etc.) and implementation (G:hub, local partners, volunteers etc.) of service. For each part we will provide different tools and find out motivations for them to effectively participate in the project.

2. Local governments usually neither cooperate nor interfere with our project.

In Hubei Province, local Water Resources Bureau introduced the 2 pilot sites. But they have no any money or even expertise support. As long as we can finish the work in our ways, they will be happy. In other cases, we rely more on villagers than local governments.

In the Dazhangzhuang case in Henan province, we have talked to local governments but they did not care what we do and will not provide any support. So we decided to do it with local partners and villagers.

In the case of Maoweizi primary school in Henan Province, we talked to village committee members and they told us there was no drinking water problem. But then the principal of the rural school told us that there was even no drinking water source in his school. Children had to take water bottles from home for whole day’s need. So we asked the principal to look for local construction team to do well drilling work and it went pretty well actually. So the local government there neither supported nor hindered our work.

The real problem is that there are many cases where local governments do not allow us to implement project. They may have different reasons to do so. What we can do is to quit and leave our contacts to them and to villagers, hoping some day they can call and ask for help.

Sustainable Operation

By East Meets West Foundation Posted on Tue 22 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Greetings, G-Hub
Building water systems is easy. To make sure that they continue operating year after year is the big challenge. In the brief write-up on Dazhangzhuang Village, you mention that a deep well was built for the village in 2004 but that it “only worked 3 months before abandoned because of broken facilities.” This leads to a couple of obvious questions: (1) Who was responsible for the operation and maintenance of the well? (2) Why wasn’t it repaired? (3) What arrangements would G-Hub help put in place in order to ensure that the well will operate properly in the future?
Per
East Meets West

Sustainable Operation

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Sat 26 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Dear EMW,
Thanks for your questions.

(1) Who was responsible for the operation and maintenance of the well?
According to villagers, it is more like a construction problem rather than operation and maintenance problem of the well. In 2004, the town authority dug the well and connected it with pipes to every house in the village. Villagers told us that the pump did not work and pipes broke in several months. They believe that local government used poor quality products. So before discussing operation and maintenance responsibilities, there is even no chance to operate and maintain it.

(2) Why wasn’t it repaired?
The government did not want to repair it. We managed to go to town government and the officials told us that since they built water supply systems in 2004, they will not give any more money to further help the village. The villagers seemed not know how and they assumed that the government should repair it. They blamed the government for not using money to get qualified water facilities. Since they still have shallow wells to use, the water supply systems were then just abandoned there for years.

(3) What arrangements would G-Hub help put in place in order to ensure that the well will operate properly in the future?
The villagers do not really know their drinking water quality. They guess it is not good, but do not know how bad it is. We gave them the testing results and warned them not to drink water from their shallow wells any more. We think this is the motivation for villagers to operate the well properly. After all, it can be related to their health problem.
We also sign an agreement with villagers, asking them to appoint one specific person to operate the well. They should collect some fee for maintenance and electricity. Since they pay something, they will understand that it is their facilities and the use and operation of the well will be under every villager’s supervision.

Sustainable Operation

By East Meets West Foundation Posted on Mon 28 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Dear G-Hub,
Many thanks for your well formulated answers to my questions. I want to follow up on the question on sustainable operation with a comment that might help you in the futute.
Over the last 15 years EMW has built more than 250 piped village water schemes, serving almost 400,000 people. We have found that there is no magic solution to the challenge of managing village systems. What works in one place might not work in another. What works initially, might not be the right solution five years later. We keep track of what happens in all the systems, are they still operating, do they have technical or financial problems. Most important, we are there to help solve problems related to operation and maintence.
Thus, our advice to G-Hub is that you need to make a longterm commitment to the people in the village you serve. Don't just "build and hand-over" but be their advisor for years to come.
Good luck,
Per
East Meets West

Sustainable Operation

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Fri 01 Feb 2013, almost 10 years ago

Dear EMW,

Thank you very much for the advice. Your experience is very important for the sustainability of our project.

We will work with local partners to keep monitoring how the systems work and helping villagers with operation and maintenance. We are also planning to make our website an information exchange platform and service center that will link donors, equipment suppliers, project executors or anyone who will go to villages and do some help. Thus any needs from the villages including technical or financial ones can be made public and we can find solutions to them accordingly.

Hope to learn more from your work in the future.

Best,
G:Hub

Timing and gov't support

By Peer Water Exchange Posted on Wed 02 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hi All,

Happy New Year!

Sorry the timing for the review turned out to be in the middle of a holiday season. So i am going to extend it to allow greater participation.

My first question is related to gov't inclusion. I see that you (G:Hub) is providing training for environmental rights. What is the role of gov't in providing water and working on the quality? Are you planning to demonstrate pilots so that the scaling will be done by the gov't? Or do you see your work being expanded through community-to-community networking?

Also, can you provide some clarification on your work: one school tank in Henan is mentioned. What would your next project(s) be? Are you planning to test the technologies yourself?

Finally, is your funding so far project based?

Thanks,
Rajesh

Timing and gov't support

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Fri 04 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hi Rajesh,
Happy New Year!
Here below is answers to your questions. Please let me know if you have more questions.
Thanks,
lican

For a number of years the Chinese government has been working to solve issues related to rural drinking water access and safety problems. According to “China’s 11th Five-year Plan for Safe Drinking Water in Rural Areas (2005-2010),” the government’s goal was to provide 160 million rural residents with clean drinking water by the end of 11th Five-Year Plan (2010). This would cover half of the rural population that has no access to safe drinking water. By 2015, the plan aims for all rural residents to have access to safe drinking water.

In 2009 the Ministry of Water Resources announced that 160 million villagers or half of the rural residents that previously had no access to safe drinking water gained access clean water. But there are still problems that weaken this achievement. For one thing, constructed drinking water facilities are often of poor quality. The operation and maintenance of the facilities have a lot of problems, making them ineffective in many cases. Furthermore, water quality in many areas has declined due to contamination. It is estimated that in the 11th five-year plan period an additional 200 million rural residents have lost access to safe drinking water.

This means that despite the government’s efforts to solve the problem by providing more treatment centers, the continued pollution problem has cancelled out the gains made, and there is little difference in terms of the population number before and after the 11th five-year plan. Despite the impressive achievement of solving the water access problems for 160 million villagers, because the root causes are not being addressed and sanitarian standards are increased, more people have lost access to clean water, and the total number of people without access to clean water remains around 300 million.

China’s 12th five-year plan on rural drinking water safety was approved by central government in March, 2012. It restates that by 2015 about 300 million rural residents—almost the same number as in the beginning of 11th five-year plan period—should have access to safe drinking water. However, as has happened in previous years when water supply facilities were built without focusing on quality, rural drinking water safety problems will not be effectively solved, especially under circumstances where local environments are being deteriorated. Therefore, many rural residents’ desire to drink clean water remain luxurious wishes, rather than being addressed as the fundamental needs that they are.

We have talked to local authorities in some cities and towns. One insider told us that it should just be a mid-term goal to solve the drinking water problem for the 300 million rural residents by 2015 because 1) local governments simply cannot achieve this and 2) there will be more need. Even in some areas where local governments claimed to have solved this problem, we found that villagers still complain about the quality of the drinking water. Governments’ efforts are not enough. That is why we still think we should do some help while governments are planning to solve it.

“Digging well and building pipes” are what governments do to solve the problem. Some local for-profit companies will be in charge of water supply facilities’ operation and maintenance. It will be good that some local authorities can approve and even adopt our working model but honestly we do not think it will happen and it should not be our objective. The way we scale up our work includes local NGOs and individuals’ participation by providing information and primary investigation etc.

We are doing work in Henan and Hubei, one school and one village in each. So we have 4 pilot sites in 2012 (Please see the file uploaded “ghub clean water 2012 cases”). We test the function of technologies by sending water samples to local CDCs (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). We will not use the equipments or technologies until CDCs’ testing results are good. We then will post the testing result in villages/schools to let everyone know that it should be safe water to drink.

In 2012 we got funding to cover parts of the whole work. To make it simply, we are now trying to raise money case by case. That is, we will do investigation and calculate how much it needs to provide clean water in one village/school, like we showed for the Dazhangzhuang case. Then we put these information online to seek funding. Dazhangzhuang case is just one example.

Re: Timing and gov't support

By Peer Water Exchange Posted on Fri 04 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Thanks for the detailed and informative answer.

Looking forward to working with you and also to put your 4 sites and also to discuss your water quality testing.

Regards,
Rajesh

Welcome - More about your model

By Global Women's Water Initiative Posted on Thu 06 Dec 2012, about 10 years ago

Hi there

Welcome to PWX. We're excited about the possibility of having our first program from China.

After reading your profile and reviewing your website, I'd really like to know a bit more about
- your community engagement model,
- the technologies you implement and why you choose them,
- the kinds of water source protection strategies and campaigns you are implementing

Good luck!

Gemma

Welcome - More about your model

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Sun 23 Dec 2012, almost 10 years ago

Hi Gemma,
Thanks for your questions and the opportunity for us to further explain our work.
Please find below answers to your questions.

-your community engagement model,

In general, there are 3 parts the communities get engaged in the project.
First, villagers may pay a very small part of costs of accessing clean water if there is a need. It is an effective way to make villagers understand that this is their own project and equipments not only ours. In the Dazhangzhuang case, G:Hub mainly focus on solving quality problem of drinking water. It is villagers who will discuss and decide whether or how to make it tap water or a collective water source from where they pick up water.

Second, villagers decide how to operate and maintain the equipment with the help of G:Hub. They will discuss whether they pay some electricity fee, who should be the responsible person to maintain the facilities, and how to distribute water. Whatever their decision is, the agreement must be public.

Third, villagers will participate in G:Hub’s exchange and training activities and share their experience of maintaining equipments. They will get more knowledge of drinking water, pollution prevention and water resource management. We will provide more tools, water quality fast testing toolkit for example, so villagers can better understand the environment and have some means of protection.

- the technologies you implement and why you choose them,

There is no one-fit-all technology and equipment for every village/school because of difference pollution or geological situation. This is also one of the most difficult parts of our project. That is why we emphasize “appropriate technology” for each village. Luckily there is an abandoned deep well in the Dazhangzhuang village. We took a sample from the well and had it tested. It turned out that the quality meets sanitation standards. So we will use it as a new source for drinking water. After consulting with experts, we decide to buy pumps and construct a reservoir. In other cases, we look for appropriate technologies based on pollution or geological type. For example in another village where fluoride in drinking water exceeds sanitation standard in Hubei province, we buy household use equipment that can remove fluoride.

- the kinds of water source protection strategies and campaigns you are implementing

G:Hub emphasizes on providing tools, methods, and means for public participation in environmental protection. We’ve produced one toolkit for drinking water quality knowledge and another for water quality investigation to train villagers and volunteers to better understand water source problems. We also plan to introduce environmental rights protection cases to them. In our training and exchange activities, we will not push villagers and demand what they should do but through providing tools and introducing examples to they may find ways to protect their water source and the environment.

Hope those answer your questions and please let us know if you have more questions and suggestions.

Best Regards,
Lican

Welcome - More about your model

By Team Blue Posted on Thu 03 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Gemma:

Good to see that you are still working hard and moving along.

I'll have a more detailed look tomorrow and give you some responses.

Did that proposed project in California get sufficiently financed?

Happy New Year.

Cheers, Rick

Welcome - More about your model

By Global Women's Water Initiative Posted on Tue 08 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hey Rick

Hope you had a great holiday!

I'm not sure if the California program got funded. If you find out please let me know.

Be well
g

Welcome - More about your model

By Global Women's Water Initiative Posted on Tue 08 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Lican

Thanks for your answers. Very helpful.

How much will the community be involved in the planning? Are you working with local CBOs/NGOs? Will they be created?

Be well and good luck
Gemma

Welcome - More about your model

By Greenovation Hub Posted on Thu 10 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hi Gemma,
Thanks for your questions. Please see my answers below.
Best,
lican

We want the communities to be involved from the beginning. For example, they should discuss whether they want to find new water sources, whether to use household or collective equipments and then how to operate and maintain them. In some cases like the Maoweizi school in Henan province, they find local technicians to do construction work by themselves. What we do is to confirm the expense and quality of the work to ensure they get clean water.

We also plan to do more promotion about the project in the future so that more communities will know it and they can contact us to seek help from outside. We will design some survey or investigation forms for communities to fill out before we do field investigation. It is a way for local communities to know more about drinking water problem and water pollution. We can save some investigation expenses as well.

Communities’ main role is to operate and maintain equipments or facilities. Villagers decide who among them will run the facility. We will not interfere with their decision. What we want them to do is to make all the decision public. If there is pollution around, we will tell them the possible influence and the community decides whether they want to do something about it.

But the fact is that due to lack of basic knowledge about water quality and equipments, they barely know what the problem is and how to find appropriate solutions. Hence, even we want communities to be involved as much as possible, they usually complain about pollution and drinking water problem but do nothing. We think it is also a matter of time for them to be empowered before taking any active action. What we do, besides helping them with drinking water, is to bring some knowledge and information to them. We hope that somehow they can protect their lives and the environment by themselves rather than relying on outsiders.

We work with local NGOs. They help us identify villages and contact local governments if necessary. They also help monitor the use of equipments in villages. In cases like Hubei province, Green Hanjiang, our local partner, also do their own environmental education activities in the selected village and school. Some other NGOs show quite some interests in developing similar project in their own working area. We will provide some trainings to those NGOs in the future so that we can work together to help more rural areas in fighting against pollution and drinking water problems.

We emphasize initiative or spontaneity of communities. We hope that through exchanging ideas and experience of equipment operation mechanism and water resources protection among villages and NGOs, some kind of CBOs can be created. But it is more like a bonus for us rather than a goal in current stage. It could be an important part in future with the development of the project.

Welcome - More about your model

By Global Women's Water Initiative Posted on Tue 08 Jan 2013, almost 10 years ago

Hey Rick

Hope you had a great holiday!

I'm not sure if the California program got funded. If you find out please let me know.

Be well
g