plan 138Sanitary Latrine Program for the Central Region of

Summary

East Meets West’s (EMW) Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program has built 110 piped rural water systems, and more than 500 pour flush septic tank latrines as well. As we no longer have internal funding for the latrine program, we seek $25,000 in PWX fun

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Background

The East Meets West Foundation (EMWF) Clean Water Program has been underway for more than fifteen years, and so far has constructed 109 piped and treated water systems to communities ranging from about 150 – 1,000 households (HH), with an average family size of five.

The program recently expanded to include a sanitary component that provides a modest subsidy of construction costs to encourage households to build pour-flush latrines, complemented activity by hand washing promotion. EMWF also carries out selected studies to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of rural water supply provision, including both technical (e.g., water quality treatment) and management (e.g., private sector management) studies to improve the cost effectiveness, operational efficiency, and community health impact of our facilities and services.

Location

Da Nang, Central Coastal Region, Vietnam

Attachments

  • Doc Overall_...
  • Pdf EMW_Sani...
  • Pdf EMW_Clea...

Focus

Primary Focus: Sanitation - Households
Secondary Focus: Capacity Building

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 0

Safe drinking water is already being provided to the proposed beneficiaries under a separately funded clean water program.

School Children Getting Water: 0

Safe drinking water is already being provided to the proposed beneficiaries under a separately funded clean water program.

People Getting Sanitation: 5,000

1,000 household latrines will be built, which for a typical family size of five people, would provide improved sanitary latrine services to about 5,000 people.

People Getting Other Benefits: 5,000

5,000 people would get hygiene and sanitation behavioral change training, under EMW's recently initiated hygiene and sanitation behavioral change program, focusing on appropriate hand washing behavior.

Application Type: Project Funding

Start Date: 2008-09-15

Completion Date: 2009-07-15

Technology Used:

EMWF has already carried out repeated consultation with beneficiary communities and local authorities (hamlet, CPC, DPC, and PPC) to plan and implement pipe treated water systems, and more recently, household and school sanitary latrines.

EMW conducts a series of consultation visits to assess physical and cost feasibility, and willingness and ability of beneficiaries to co-finance (cash and in-kind) latrine construction, and be responsible for all maintenance and repair costs, in every community we work in.

Having already worked closely with the local authorities to build a piped water system in the beneficiary community, any necessary approval and cooperation necessary for the sanitary latrine program are readily obtained from the relevant authorities.

Promotion of both sanitary latrines (using modest subsidies) and appropriate hand washing promotion is conducted by EMWF staff at both older water system sites, as well as all new sites starting in the third quarter of 2008, which means only where water systems financed by the Global Partnership for Output Based Aid (GPOBA, administered by World Bank) are also being constructed.

The piped water systems are important to support the sanitation / hygiene program, as piped water will be available in essentially all homes that will choose to build sanitary latrines.

What are the basic design features? The basic sanitary latrine is a one-hole, pour flush double vault (septic tank) latrine, with a shelter (typically brick ventilated walls, and a corrugated iron roof) for privacy. However, an increasing number of HHs prefer to upgrade their basic latrines to a bathroom that contains the latrine and bathing facilities, along with improved aesthetics (tiled walls are popular for those who can afford them). The EMW design is based on designs that were promoted by International Development Enterprises (IDE) during their recent multi-year market-based hygienic latrine promotion project in Quang Nam.

The EMW design is based on designs that were promoted by International Development Enterprises (IDE) during their recent multi-year market-based hygienic latrine promotion project in Quang Nam. EMW’s latrines have been constructed mainly in Quang Nam Province, which is also the main focus of the EMW Clean Water Program thus far.

The EMW program takes advantage of the availability of trained latrine builders whom IDE had trained-up during their program, as well as IDE’s promotional and marketing activities that helped to identify and expand the market demand for hygienic latrines.

How about alternative latrine designs? – EMW also intends to initiate a pilot program for the promotion of Eco San latrines. Ecological sanitation (also called 'EcoSan') is structured on recycling principles that keep the eco-cycle in the sanitation process closed. This system uses human excreta as a resource: human waste is processed on site until they are free of pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms. After this process, the sanitized excreta can be used for agricultural purposes.

EcoSan toilets have several advantages over standard pour-flush latrines, including an EcoSan toilet can solve problems like bad odors, flies and poor hygiene, and is a comfortable and safe alternative to pour flush latrines. However, as this is not a common design in Vietnam, EMW will promote the EcoSan toilet as a useful alternative to the standard pour-flush latrine. The extent to which they are financed under this project will depend upon the willing of families to adopt the new technology.

What is the typical cost of a HH latrine, and how does the co-financing arrangement work? The typical cost of a basic pour-flush latrine with a septic tank is about US$125 (about VND 2.1 million), reflecting the recent significant increase in the price of goods, materials and skilled labor in Vietnam, due at least in part to the booming local economy. EMW provides a subsidy of 20% of the cost of a basic pour/flush latrine as a financial stimulant to encourage families (especially low-income families) to build improved sanitary latrines. The EMW subsidy is 20% of the total cost, or about VND 420,000, or about $25/HH. Sometimes people choose to build upscale versions that cost up to $250. However, all costs above the $25 subsidy will be covered in its entirety by the HH beneficiary.

Phases:

The proposed sanitary latrine program (complemented by our hygiene behavioral change program focusing on hand-washing) will be carried out in a single phase from about September through February, depending upon funding availability.

Community Organization:

The community mobilization process includes several steps, all of which have been carried out many times by trained, experienced EMWF staff. For example, in Tam Anh Nam Commune, EMW held meetings with the Commune Peoples Committee (CPC) on project objectives, action plans, and selection criteria for potential beneficiaries.

After visiting every household for verification of interest and willing to co-finance, meetings were held with local beneficiaries to discuss and agree upon project orientation, role and responsibilities of each party, and implementation process. Through these meetings, EMW assesses the level of willingness to participate and co-finance facilities by the beneficiary households.

MOUs are then signed with CPC confirming roles and responsibilities. The Project Steering Committee was set up with the participation of Vice Chairman of PC, the Head of Commune Health Station, and the heads of project hamlets and the Women’s Union.

The CPC works with hamlet level officials and individual households to prepare the list of families potentially interested in building partially subsidized sanitary latrines.
EMW water team staff then visits individual households to verify the interest of potential beneficiaries households. The subsequent meetings and technical training activities with selected beneficiaries is then conducted, including project orientation, fully informing potentially interested HHs of their roles and responsibilities, and discussing details of the implementation process.

An Agreement / Registration letter between EMW and interested HHs is then signed officially The Project Management Board coordinates with EMW assigned staff who will guide and the implementation of follow up activities during project implementation. When the construction is completed successfully and meets project quality control standards, the subsidy payment will be made directly to the HHs by EMW, witnessed by CPC and the PMB.

Government Interaction:

Ancillary activities:

The hygiene education, capacity building, job generation aspects of this proposed program are already mentioned above. The extensive work carried out by IDE in Quang Nam Province was beneficial in carrying out the IEC work in many areas where EMW intends to use the PWX funding, which expedited the process of familiarizing potential customers with the benefits of improved latrines and hand washing.

Other Issues:

EMW anticipates a substantial expansion of this program, as suitable funding sources are identified. Unmet demand for improved sanitation in Quang Nam (and some of the surrounding provinces) remains high, and EMW intends to help meet and further stimulate that demand.

EMW’s latrines have been constructed mainly in Quang Nam Province, which is also the main focus of the EMW Clean Water Program thus far. The EMW program takes advantage of the availability of trained latrine builders whom IDE had trained-up during their program, as well as IDE’s promotional and marketing activities that helped to identify and expand the market demand for hygienic latrines.

What are the future plans for expanding the Sanitary Latrine program? At this time, the overall EMW sanitary latrine program is still in its nascent stage. While in theory, EMW would prefer to promote and subsidize latrines for all families participating in the Clean Water Program, funding sources need to be identified to support this goal. So far, only $10,000 for constructing latrines has been made available from unrestricted funds. No funding is available from EMW’s primary donor (Atlantic Philanthropies) for Grass Roots Programs such as this, so EMW fund raisers may be requested to seek other funding sources, such as Blue Planet Run, to provide supplemental support for the sanitary latrine promotion program.

This proposed program will also support a substantial capacity strengthening program to expand job opportunities for latrine builders, including on-the job training. Trainees will be instructed in technical and cost aspects of the program, empowering them to establish their own businesses to expand their operations beyond this specific funding cycle.

Maintenance Revenue:

This $10 is the annual maintenance cost of a single family latrine, for cleaning and periodic de-sludging. During the community mobilization and construction phases, latrine builders and interested householders will be trained to carry out periodic latrine inspections, and to identify when latrines should be de-sludged, and assess the need for any potential maintenance or repairs. Latrine builders will be encouraged to develop their own latrine construction businesses.

Maintenance Cost: $10

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $75,000

1,000 household latrines will be built at an average cost of about $125 each. Households participating in the program will receive a $25 subsidy from the program as an incentive to build a household latrine, and they pay the remaining average cost of $100 for a completed latrine. EMW will cover the overhead cost of $25 to provide technical assistance for design, construction supervision, inspection, quality control for construction, will also implement an IEC program to encourage sanitary latrine adaptation, and promote hand-washing with soap among the participating communities. HHs wishing to build higher quality superstructures will bear the total incremental cost of that improved design.

Co Funding Amount: $12,500

EMW, to cover the cost of EMW water and sanitation program staff to supervise the program, and provide training to latrine builders, and hygiene and sanitation training for participating households.

Community Contribution Amount: $50,000

The community will contribute the base cost of $100 per unit for the basic latrine construction. PWX will contribute $25 to cover the proposed subsidy as an incentive to encourage HHs to participate in the program. EMW will provide the $25 cost of construction supervision, quality control and IEC promotion.

Fund Requested: $25,000

Implementing Organization:

Attachments

  • Doc Overall_...
  • Pdf EMW_Sani...
  • Pdf EMW_Clea...
  • 1 participant | show more

    Earlier project update?

    Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

    Very nice application and the program is certainly well thought out.

    It is difficult for me to evaluate this application and the work required without seeing the results of the project funded earlier and also mentioned in this application.

    Specific questions: 1/ how is the subsidy working out? 2/ the subsidy asked for is the same a

    ...

    Very nice application and the program is certainly well thought out.


    It is difficult for me to evaluate this application and the work required without seeing the results of the project funded earlier and also mentioned in this application.


    Specific questions:
    1/ how is the subsidy working out?
    2/ the subsidy asked for is the same as in the earlier project, but prices have gone up - is there a need to increase the subsidy?
    3/ what is the interaction with the Stockholm EconSan people?
    4/ what is the ratio of the standard toilet v ecosan?
    5/ have you considered dual-pit?


    I looked the the project data and there is no updates or report. It would be very helpful to know the progress of the other project, some photos, learnings, etc. Can we have status reports on PWX please so we know what is happening or already happened to the other project.
    Then this can be a nice followup.

  • 1 participant | show more

    Subsidies

    Martin Strele of Kairos

    Hi, generally I value the idea of providing subsidies (to poorer households) as stimulans for the building of toilet facilities. And I see the connection to pure water as well. What puzzles me a bit, is the fact that subsidies which are only available in a clearly limited area (such as the case of this project) can lead to negative impact ...

    Hi,
    generally I value the idea of providing subsidies (to poorer households) as stimulans for the building of toilet facilities. And I see the connection to pure water as well. What puzzles me a bit, is the fact that subsidies which are only available in a clearly limited area (such as the case of this project) can lead to negative impact on the motivation to erect toilets in the surrounding area. Why are they getting 25 USD, and we don't? My own perspection on subsidy policies is, that they should be channeled through the national (or subnational) administrative channels. I'm aware that this can be tedious in some areas (corruption etc) but I guess Vietnam would not be the worst area to channel through official bodies. Any ideas or comments on this?
    Martin
    -PS. I'm presently working in an area where people don't even attend government-offered training courses because all the NGOs offer free food for their courses.... NGOs create parallel universes here...

  • 2 participants | show more

    Personalizing the narrative for funders

    Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

    Putting on a funders' hat, i am looking for some personalization of the narrative. The one photo: is there a name? a story? Can we get some real stories about what the situation is today and then be able to compare it with some followup interviews?

    In addition to the request about the previous project, it would be a beautiful gesture t

    ...

    Putting on a funders' hat, i am looking for some personalization of the narrative. The one photo: is there a name? a story? Can we get some real stories about what the situation is today and then be able to compare it with some followup interviews?


    In addition to the request about the previous project, it would be a beautiful gesture to supply some narrative from the previous project and show some impact through some photos and an interview.


    It is the Year of Sanitation, but there are no funds for that. All the agencies who declared the year, appear to be increasing funding for water. Why? Maybe because there is at least a story. You can show a child drinking water happily, but you can't do that with sanitation. I don't know why the large UN agencies need a story.


    So for a funder like Blue Planet Run which traditionally exclusively focuses on safe drinking water for the very reasons mentioned above, it is very risky to fund sanitation projects. The supporters of BPR need to hear something tangible, something good. They need to see the results of the earlier experiment in photos and stories.


    So please can we see both the results of the earlier experiment and some human interest stories and photos from that?


    Thanks, Rajesh

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      Rajesh: I could get such a story when I am in Danang in three weeks, but it is very difficult to do from here, especially during the summer vacation in VN as well. I did update the photo and budget files. I'll see what I can do when I get back, but it is simply not possible right now.

      Rajesh:

      I could get such a story when I am in Danang in three weeks, but it is very difficult to do from here, especially during the summer vacation in VN as well.

      I did update the photo and budget files.

      I'll see what I can do when I get back, but it is simply not possible right now.

  • 2 participants | show more

    Co-financing challenges and sanitation reports

    Gemma Bulos of A Single Drop

    I think I reveiwed this last round but I have a few more questions this time. Can you tell us a little more about the challenges and learnings from the last implementation. Did you have co-financing challenges? $100 seems like a lot of money for the users, but I absolutely understand it is the cost of the latrine. What is your payment sch...

    I think I reveiwed this last round but I have a few more questions this time. Can you tell us a little more about the challenges and learnings from the last implementation. Did you have co-financing challenges? $100 seems like a lot of money for the users, but I absolutely understand it is the cost of the latrine. What is your payment scheme? If yes, what is the rate of people paying on time, defaulting etc? Also, you have a very intensive report on the clean water systems attached with full descriptions of M&E, maintainence, quality control. Do you have anything specifically about the latrines, M&E, maintanence, quality control??

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      Subsidies are useful for two reasons. Most people are motivated by the offer of free money (subsidy). Most rural Vietnamese families nowadays (although this is not necessarily true of ethnic minority communities who have different cultural attitudes about defecation) would prefer to have a proper hygienic latrine, as opposed to practicin...

      Subsidies are useful for two reasons. Most people are motivated by the offer of free money (subsidy). Most rural Vietnamese families nowadays (although this is not necessarily true of ethnic minority communities who have different cultural attitudes about defecation) would prefer to have a proper hygienic latrine, as opposed to practicing open defecation. There are several motivating factors involved, including the more obvious ones are having privacy and isolating feces from the local environment. If people routinely defecate openly in the typically rainy environment of much of Vietnam, when the rains come, shit is dispersed everywhere, a situation that neither rich nor poor people appreciate.

      Therefore, essentially every family wants to have its own latrine. If there is no subsidy available to build latrines, people are still likely to build a family latrine eventually, but they may put off that investment for a year or two until after they have accumulated sufficient capital to invest in the latrine.

      However, when a subsidy is made available, people are much more likely to invest in a latrine now. For example, this year EMW has provided subsidies for 200 families to build latrines. Without those subsidies, it is likely that only 50 or so latrines would get built in the first year. The other 150 family latrines might not get built for another two or three years, contingent upon the families’ capacity and willingness to accumulate sufficient capital to make that investment.

      Regarding investment costs, the cost of a proper of pour-flush double vault sanitary latrine with brick walls and a roof was about $120 last year. If there was a proper bathroom as well (i.e., shower for bathing) the price would have been about $500. Due to the steadily inflating costs of goods, materials and labor, the current price of a basic pour-flush latrine is about $180 (VND 2,200,000). Inflation across the board is reflected by the increase in the price of petrol, which was VND 20,000 per liter, and nowadays is VND 32,000 per liter.

      Payment scheme and default - Subsidy payments are made only after the latrine is built, so there is no possibility of default payments.

      Yes, we have a description of the latrine program, though it is not anywhere as detailed and comprehensive as our water project evaluation that you alluded to.

  • 2 participants | show more

    Funder view point

    Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

    For a funder whose focus is on providing safe drinking water (granted that some might consider narrow), doing a sanitation project is hard. To help us, i would like to see a stronger connecting with water. It would be great if: 1) the sanitation project were linked to a village where BPR had funded the water; 2) the link between water...

    For a funder whose focus is on providing safe drinking water (granted that some might consider narrow), doing a sanitation project is hard.

    To help us, i would like to see a stronger connecting with water. It would be great if:

    1) the sanitation project were linked to a village where BPR had funded the water;

    2) the link between water and sanitation was clearly spelled out in this situation. Is the current sanitation situation contaminating the source of the water supply?

    It is interesting that the large agencies that both give big grants and create "Year of Sanitation" are not stepping. EMW has done remarkably well in attracting funds for its water program, but appears not to be able to raise money for what seems like a very attractive sanitation program. Is there any way we can help (other than funding)?

    Thanks.

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      This kind of information can be collected from our numerous field sites, but we do not intend to do a comprehensive sanitary latrine and hygiene promotion program until we have moved further along with this initial project. We plan to eventually implement the latrine program in all 120 water system sites where we have carried out the wat...

      This kind of information can be collected from our numerous field sites, but we do not intend to do a comprehensive sanitary latrine and hygiene promotion program until we have moved further along with this initial project.

      We plan to eventually implement the latrine program in all 120 water system sites where we have carried out the water program, contingent upon availability of funding.

      Water quality monitoring does not so far show any cross contamination of feces due to improper sanitation habits. The great majority of our water systems use groundwater using drilled and cased boreholes, which greatly reduces the potential of surface sources of pollution intruding into the water source. Even if that did occur, we install multi-stage water treatment systems specifically tailored to the site situation, and reflecting periodic WQ monitoring results (e.g., de-sedimentation, aeration, flocculation, chlorination, etc.) to minimize the possibility of any potential cross-contamination.

      With regard to your final question, all we need is supplemental funding to continue carrying out this program.

      Note that EMW currently holds the position of chairman of the NGO Water and Sanitation Working Group in Vietnam. We work closely with our fellow NGOs in watsan (and global climate change mitigation) to promote and standardize our approaches to providing efficient and cost-effective provision of watsan services to the people of Vietnam.

  • 2 participants | show more

    Subsidies

    Martin Strele of Kairos

    Hi, generally I value the idea of providing subsidies (to poorer households) as stimulans for the building of toilet facilities. And I see the connection to pure water as well. What puzzles me a bit, is the fact that subsidies which are only available in a clearly limited area (such as the case of this project) can lead to negative impact ...

    Hi,
    generally I value the idea of providing subsidies (to poorer households) as stimulans for the building of toilet facilities. And I see the connection to pure water as well. What puzzles me a bit, is the fact that subsidies which are only available in a clearly limited area (such as the case of this project) can lead to negative impact on the motivation to erect toilets in the surrounding area. Why are they getting 25 USD, and we don't? My own perspection on subsidy policies is, that they should be channeled through the national (or subnational) administrative channels. I'm aware that this can be tedious in some areas (corruption etc) but I guess Vietnam would not be the worst area to channel through official bodies. Any ideas or comments on this?
    Martin
    -PS. I'm presently working in an area where people don't even attend government-offered training courses because all the NGOs offer free food for their courses.... NGOs create parallel universes here...

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      Just because you do not have access to a latrine subsidy doesn't mean you can't build a latrine on your own. There already are national programs for channelling funds for both water and sanitation. These programs are financed by both the Government of Vietnam as well as international donor agencies and many NGOs. Channelling NGO funds ...

      Just because you do not have access to a latrine subsidy doesn't mean you can't build a latrine on your own. There already are national programs for channelling funds for both water and sanitation. These programs are financed by both the Government of Vietnam as well as international donor agencies and many NGOs.

      Channelling NGO funds through government agencies would add a significant overhead that would ultimately reduce the level of services currently being made available through EMW and other NGOs providing watsan services.

  • 3 participants | show more

    Problems downloading the costs-file

    Martin Strele of Kairos

    Hi, I just have a logistical problem: I can't open the xls file with the costs. It only shows a .dot file, which appears to be empty. Any mistake on my side? thanks, martin

    Hi,
    I just have a logistical problem: I can't open the xls file with the costs. It only shows a .dot file, which appears to be empty. Any mistake on my side?
    thanks,
    martin

    • Rajesh Shah of Peer Water Exchange

      Sorry to hear you are having problems; i just now clicked the excel icon and then downloaded file to my desktop. I found a file named: EMW-PWX_Latrine_Estimate.xls and it opened fine.

      Please email me or help@peerwater.org if you still have problems (i know both of us are using the same browser on the same platform!).

      Thanks, Rajesh

      ...

      Sorry to hear you are having problems; i just now clicked the excel icon and then downloaded file to my desktop. I found a file named: EMW-PWX_Latrine_Estimate.xls and it opened fine.


      Please email me or help@peerwater.org if you still have problems (i know both of us are using the same browser on the same platform!).


      Thanks,
      Rajesh

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      Ok, I am a recent MacBook Pro convert, and needed to change the various word, excel, etc. file extensions, which I have done for the budget file that is now attached to the application. Rick

      Ok, I am a recent MacBook Pro convert, and needed to change the various word, excel, etc. file extensions, which I have done for the budget file that is now attached to the application.

      Rick

  • 2 participants | show more

    Rob Bell of El Porvenir

    Dear Rick, I think I reviewed this one last time as well. I would also be interested to hear about the subsidy results. We are very interested, since our beneficiaries to not contribute monetarily to their latrines at the moment, just their sweat equity. Are the villagers farmers, what is their source of income to pay $100? How do yo...

    Dear Rick,

    I think I reviewed this one last time as well. I would also be interested to hear about the subsidy results. We are very interested, since our beneficiaries to not contribute monetarily to their latrines at the moment, just their sweat equity. Are the villagers farmers, what is their source of income to pay $100?

    How do you get de-sludging for just $10? Are these villages fairly high density? Here I think it would cost about $100 (just a guess though). I think we are likely not nearly as dense in our population here.

    I will also be interested to hear about the ecosan initiative and how that goes. We are also looking into that as an alternative, and also in Nicaragua it is not widely accepted. (well, not at all, practically speaking).

    Is the hygiene education program funded separately? Your application seems to imply that.

    My other questions are repeated above, so I look forward to your answers there as well.

    Thanks,
    Rob

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      Their income source is primarily agriculture production (mostly rice). At this time the hygiene behavioral change program is funding directly by EMW overhead funds. High density housing surrounded by rice fields. De-sludging labor is cheap for a single family latrine in the countryside. Interest in Eco-san latrines is somewhat limite...

      Their income source is primarily agriculture production (mostly rice).

      At this time the hygiene behavioral change program is funding directly by EMW overhead funds.

      High density housing surrounded by rice fields.

      De-sludging labor is cheap for a single family latrine in the countryside.

      Interest in Eco-san latrines is somewhat limited in the Central Region for cultural reasons.

    • Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

      The hygiene promotion program is currently funded out of discretionary funds, which are nowadays quite limited. Subsidies are useful for two reasons. Most people are motivated by the offer of free money (subsidy). Most rural Vietnamese families nowadays (although this is not necessarily true of ethnic minority communities who have differ...

      The hygiene promotion program is currently funded out of discretionary funds, which are nowadays quite limited.

      Subsidies are useful for two reasons. Most people are motivated by the offer of free money (subsidy). Most rural Vietnamese families nowadays (although this is not necessarily true of ethnic minority communities who have different cultural attitudes about defecation) would prefer to have a proper hygienic latrine, as opposed to practicing open defecation. There are several motivating factors involved, including the more obvious ones are having privacy and isolating feces from the local environment. If people routinely defecate openly in the typically rainy environment of much of Vietnam, when the rains come, shit is dispersed everywhere, a situation that neither rich nor poor people appreciate.

      Therefore, essentially every family wants to have its own latrine. If there is no subsidy available to build latrines, people are still likely to build a family latrine eventually, but they may put off that investment for a year or two until after they have accumulated sufficient capital to invest in the latrine.

      However, when a subsidy is made available, people are much more likely to invest in a latrine now. For example, this year EMW has provided subsidies for 200 families to build latrines. Without those subsidies, it is likely that only 50 or so latrines would get built in the first year. The other 150 family latrines might not get built for another two or three years, contingent upon the families’ capacity and willingness to accumulate sufficient capital to make that investment.

      Regarding investment costs, the cost of a proper of pour-flush double vault sanitary latrine with brick walls and a roof was about $120 last year. If there was a proper bathroom as well (i.e., shower for bathing) the price would have been about $500. Due to the steadily inflating costs of goods, materials and labor, the current price of a basic pour-flush latrine is about $180 (VND 2,200,000). Inflation across the board is reflected by the increase in the price of petrol, which was VND 20,000 per liter, and nowadays is VND 32,000 per liter.

      Payment scheme and default - Subsidy payments are made only after the latrine is built, so there is no possibility of default payments.

      Yes, we have a description of the latrine program, though it is not anywhere as detailed and comprehensive as our water project evaluation that you alluded to.

  • Not Reviewed

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  • Rating: 6

    review by (only shown to members)

    I'm sure the project is good. But is it really necessary? If people build Latrines on their own that is definitely more sustainable - even if they only build them next year...

  • Rating: 1

    review by (only shown to members)

    The score is not indicative on how successful the program might be, its indicative of why it should not be funded now.

    1. there is no updates or status from the initial project funded in dec. so without any insight, its hard to fund this project without any news.

    2. BPR focuses on drinking water and we would like to add sanitation (considering it is ironical that the large agenices are not supporting it), but would really like sanitation projects that are affiliated with water projects. Since the water projects under consideration are not on PWX, it is hard to find out about them and their success and need for sanitation.

    I would be very happy to postpone the funding of this until more info from the earlier project and info on the work that this sanitation program is enhancing is provided on PWX.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    I am really keen on Sanitation projects. In my opinion, it is the hardest part of WASH to implement. I think this network could really use some more sharing on this subject.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Excellent application and program, I think we can all learn from it. My only minor comment is that the budget was a touch on the vague side. However, since it is a subsidy program, it is probably difficult to be too detailed since each family may have differing budgets if they add or subtract bells and whistles from their latrine. Good luck with this. Looking forward to the results and evaluation.

  • Not Reviewed

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Name Status Completion Date Amount Assigned
Sanitary Latrine Program for the Central Region of Vietnam Complete - Successful Sep 2009 $12,500