Improving sustainable access to water and sanitation to the disadvantaged populations of the IDN and peripheral areas in Mali through participatory, innovative, appropriate methods, in a context of Integrated Water Resources Management by local actors
This proposal is a part of the general program carried out in the Inner Delta of the Niger by PROTOS, that started in 2004.
The previous phases showed :
- an important lack for drinking water infrastructure with an important difference in coverage: an average of 60-70 %, but in some villages only 20%;
- only 5% of the population has access to improved sanitation
- traditional sanitary practices not very hygienic
- an important presence of stagnating water in de villages and high risks of pollution with waste water and human and animal excreta;
- no evacuation and treatment of waste water in rural or urban areas
- a high prevalence of waterborne diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, and malaria;
- a high population density (30 inh./km2) compared to other regions having the same climate conditions and much higher than the national average (5 inh./km2)
- transhumant population not very often included in projects;
- strong degradation of the ecosystem in the Delta, linked to the variability of the rainfall, the reduction of the floods, the numerous social conflicts, the silting of the natural canals in the Delta;
- limited income et unequally distributed in the year (75 % of the population lives with less than 1 USD/year)
- low level of education, specially for women and transhumant people;
- low capacities with local authorities to plan , implement and management local development projects, e.g. drinking water projects.
PROTOS, in collaboration with the 6 municipalities and Fondation Ensemble (a French Foundation) has formulated a development program with the following objectives and results:
- to improve the drinking water and sanitation situation of the rural population;
- to contribute to an adequate management of water resources;
- to strengthen the capacities for planning and management of the local authorities and civil society.
To improve the sustainable access to water and sanitation to the disadvantaged populations of the IDN and peripheral areas through participatory, innovative, appropriate methods, in a context of Integrated Water Resources Management by local actors
1) construction and rehabilitation of 10 drinking water points to for about 7,500 people
2) creation and training of 10 drinking water and sanitation committees for about 7,500 people
3) construction of 170 individual latrines for about 1.700 people
4) construction of 2 public latrines (places to be defined by the municipality: public markets or schools)
5) strengthening of 1 drinking water association (federation above the WUC’s) to federate the individual drinking water committees
6) strengthening of 6 municipalities so that they can play their role in the planning, implementing and management of the drinking water sector
7) developing and testing a integrated water management plan in one town
8) initiating a consultative platform between different water actors
The present proposal builds on the experiences and resultants of the previous phase, and concentrates on the one hand on a better access to drinking water and sanitation for the disadvantaged population, often forgotten by other programs, and the sustainability of the infrastructure, within in framework of Integrated Water Resources Management.
From 2006 to 2010 the following results have been obtained in the Delta:
- 164 drinking water points constructed;
- rehabilitation of 4 irrigation schemes;
- 38 public latrines constructed;
- 700 private latrines constructed;
- 1.000 cesspits constructed;
- 1 sewerage systems constructed;
- awareness raising campaign hygiene in villages and schools;
- awareness raising about Integrated Water Resources Management (14 municipalities);
- an association (federation) has been set up to support the local water user committees, and to facilitate maintenance works
- system for collecting of household waste installed in Mopti;
- 14 municipalities strengthened in different aspects of local development.
LocationCercles of Mopti, Djenné, Mopti, Mali
Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Capacity Building
People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 7,500
7,500 people (women + men + children) in rural villages:
- 6 in the Inner Delta of the Niger:
Kewa, Nema Badenyakafo , Togue Mourari (cercle of Djenné) and Socoura, Konna, et Soye (cercle of Mopti)
(a village counts between 500 and 1,000 people, number based on village survey during previous actions in the intervention area)
School Children Getting Water: 0
About 4,000 beneficiaries are younger than 16 years
People Getting Sanitation: 1,700
1,700 people equals 170 families
People Getting Other Benefits: 140,000
The entire population of the 6 municipalities of this action will benefit from the increased management capacities of their local government.
- Hygiene education for 7,500 people (in all the intervention villages)
- Capacity building of 30 drinking water user committees (WUC’s)
- Capacity building of 6 municipalities
The staff of the NGOs, and the selected local private sector will benefit from training programs and employment.
Start Date: 2011-01-01
Completion Date: 2011-12-31
Our approach builds on more than 30 years experience in the water sector and is based on strengthening the legitimate roles of the different actors (local government, regional government, civil society, private sector, and water user associations) within an integrated water resource management framework. It is adapted to the Mali context and follows the Mali decentralization and water strategies.
This approach is characterized by progressively placing the responsibility for planning, coordinating, and monitoring water and sanitation interventions at the municipal level.
The private sector is involved:
- social engineering is done by local NGOs contracted by the municipalities;
- studies are executed by local engineering firms on the basis of detailed terms of reference
- the works are carried out by local contractors through an open tender procedure.
PROTOS and the engineers from the Regional Water Directorate provide technical expertise and monitor the studies and the works and assure quality control.
The actions of the private sector are coached and controlled by the PROTOS project staff.
The water users elect a committee responsible for distribution, operation and maintenance. Each water user pays an annual fee to this committee which goes to an operation and maintenance fund, which is managed by a water user association (federation), federating the individual committees.
Each municipality signs a contract with the water committees operating on their territory that specifies rights and duties of water users, water committee and local government.
Local technicians have been trained in maintenance and can be hired by the water committees in case of repairs.
Deepening of existing and building of new shallow wells;
Building of new and rehabilitation of existing boreholes with hand pump;
Construction of Improved Pit Latrines and - ECOSAN-Latrines;
Construction of cesspits;
Construction of public latrines and hand washing devices;
Construction of drinking devices for cattle;
These technologies have been used in previous projects and have shown their applicability to the context:
Often shallow groundwater tables;
Easily to construct and to maintain by local population;
Promoted by the Mali Government.
The project will be done in one phase, funding will not be split in parts.
The community makes a request to the municipal authority. The municipality makes an appraisal of the demand according to a number of technical, financial and social criteria. Together with the Regional Water Directorate, the municipality sets the priorities. If the village is selected by the municipality, a local NGO, recruited by the municipality, and coached by PROTOS, starts the social engineering in the village:
- explaining the whole process;
- discussing the community participation;
- explaining the responsibilities of the different stakeholders,
- explaining the technical possibilities;
- sensitizing the population on correct use of drinking water and on hygiene and sanitation;
- creation of a village committee for the management of the water point, elected by the village.
A technical engineering firm recruited by the municipality in on open tender, draws a technical study for the water point, which has to be approved by PROTOS, the municipality, the Regional Water Directorate and the village.
A local contractor is recruited by the municipality for the construction of the water point. The works are controlled by PROTOS and the Regional Water Directorate, and accepted by the Municipality and the community.
The community participates in the works with non skilled labor, local materials and food and shelter for the local contractor. The municipality pays 5 % of the investment.
The municipality signs a contract with the water user committee (WUC) for the management of the water point. This management is regularly appraised by the municipality.
The water users pay for the water (on a monthly basis or per recipient).
The local authorities are the main actors in the project:
- they are responsible for the identification of the villages;
- the planning of the interventions;
- the recruiting and management of the contracts with the local NGO’s, the engineering firm, the local contractors;
- the delegation of the management of the water points to the local committees and its follow up.
The Regional Directorates play its role as a back stopping office for the municipalities, and in controlling the implementation of national water & sanitation policies on the field.
The local authorities and the Regional Directorates are member of the steering committee and decide on the strategy of the project, and guarantee the interaction with other interventions in the area (both governmental as non-governmental).
- Training of local actors on Integrated Water Resources Management;
- GIS-Cartography of natural resources (water and soil) as a decision instrument;
- Linking drinking water for human consumption and water for productive aims (growing vegetables, cattle …)
Maintenance: in regard to water infrastructure and management, the overall operation and maintenance will be fully funded by savings made by users.
The Management Committee in relation to the Regional Hydraulic Services, fix the price, taking into account recurrent costs and the price within the region. The Management Committee, based on preliminary calculations made, will be able to meet all expenses for maintenance and regular maintenance of infrastructure. It also will have a surplus to deal for extraordinary expenses.
In this case the action will involve Micro Finance Institutions to collect and secure the revenue from the point of village water committees. Experience has shown that water committees were afraid to carry large sums of money to the village, which exposed the treasurer to multiple stresses.
The price of 10 CFA per recipient 20-25 liters often applied in the Delta is accepted by the population for a drilled borehole. With an average consumption of 20l/day/person, the cost of water per person per day is 10 F CFA (USD 0.019) or 3.650 F CFA/ year (6.95 USD / year).
In the case of a village population of 400 people, the annual revenues collected are exceeding the average annual maintenance cost of a borehole.
In the case of a well, the applied system is a monthly payment per family, which amounts to a monthly minimum of 0.41 USD per family. Often, contributions are organized according to the need for maintenance, or repair, and the estimate proposed by the repairer. The required contribution is then distributed per family.
The municipality is the legal owner or the water systems but delegates the operation and maintenance to the drinking water committee on village level. On municipality level, a drinking water association (federation) is formed by the individual committees are member. This association gives support to the individual committees (organizational, technical and financial).
The drinking water committees collect the water fees, and deposit them in a saving account of the drinking water association. In case of a breakdown of the drinking water infrastructure, the drinking water association pays the repair cost. The committee hires a local technician for the reparation. These local technicians have been trained by PROTOS in previous projects.
The water association (federation) has a central store with spare parts. Local technicians purchase the necessary spare parts at this shop.
The municipality is responsible for the follow up of the drinking water committees, and can, in case of bad operation, take the necessary measures (stop the contract and organize elections for a new water users committee)
Maintenance Cost: $24,325
Prior art before metrics
See summary spreadsheet
Co Funding Amount: $224,147
Fondation Ensemble (French Foundation) : 84822 approved
DGD (Belgian Government Development Aid): 139325 approved, of which PROTOS has to generate 20% (or 27865)
Community Contribution Amount: $24,915
Municipality : 5 % in cash of investment cost
Community: in kind contribution by local communities (5 % of total investment cost):
- non skilled labor
- local materials (sand, gravel)
- food and shelter for the local contractors