plan 34Itiati Sub-location consisting of four villages

Summary

Tap into an underground source and link into the existing water distribution system for the area.

Background

Knowng that Blue Planet Run normally works with implementers to expand their capacity and avoids "one-off" projects, we would like to propose this one due to its great need and will await for the group of peers to decide.

Itiati Village is located 150 kilometers north of Nairobi at the foothills of Mt. Kenya. It consists of 1698 households, 5 nursery schools, 6 primary schools, one secondary school, one trade school, 3 cattle dips, 2 coffee factories, one dispensary and 4 tea processing centers. The combined student population is 3100 children. There are no motor vehicles and the people travel by bicycle or foot 7 kilometers down a heavily rutted road to the town of Karatina. Each family is heavily dependent on livestock and subsistence farming.

Two rivers, Ragati and Muthira, enclose the area. the Ragati is 7 kilometers distant and was the primary source of water for the community. Population growth has resulted in over-exploitation at the upper levels of the river near the intake for Itiati's water distribution system. Water used by other communities for farming, irrigation, and tapping of piped water has made the source undependable.

The Muthira River is about 5 kilometers from the village. It has become seasonal due to deforestation and other factors that have reduced rainfall. Women and children carry water from the river, when available. Children in school and families at home are often without water to drink and resort to purchasing water from vendors whose sources are questionable. Water borne diseases are common. Livestock have a difficult time, gardens depend solely on the limited rainfall. Pregnant women must negotiate the 7 kilometers to town on bike or wheelbarrow to deliver their baby because there is no water available at the dispensary. The two coffee factories are closed due to lack of water, and unemployment is a serious issue.

Location

Central, Nyeri, Kenya

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Drinking Water - Schools

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 8,500

1698 households x 5 person average.

School Children Getting Water: 3,100

Five nursery schools, six primary schools, one secondary school and a trade school.

People Getting Sanitation: 0

Schools will be getting additional latrines where needed, but this is part of a seperate project.

People Getting Other Benefits:

Itiati Sub-Location dispensary serves 72,000 people in the district. It has a water harvesting system but is often without water due to infrequent seasonal rains.
There are two coffee processing plants that will reopen when water is available.
The Itiati Self-Help Group has plans for cultivating short term crops to increase employment and reduce wide-spread poverty.
They are also investigating micro-credit projects for women.

Application Type: Project Funding

Start Date: 2007-03-15

Completion Date: 2007-08-29

Technology Used:

An underground water source has been identified on a hill overlooking the village. The water source was discovered in 1949, but sealed by authorities when the water distribution system utilizing the river was developed. The project consists of drilling a bore-hole, installing a pump, building one large and four small storage tanks and some minor repairs of leaks in pipes and storage tanks of the existing distribution system. Water could then be routed to households, schools the dispensary and coffee factories.The community has formed a water management committee to carry out the work, supervise progress, train maintenance personnel and educate the community to use of water in ways that reduce water borne diseases. A water usage fee will be charged to fund maintenance efforts.

Phases:

One

Community Organization:

th Itiati Sub-Location Self-Help Group is an active organization that has built a dispensary, church and is continually educating people on ways to avoid AIDS, malaria and other diseases. The Group will work with the contractor by providing manual labor, and personnel for maintennce training. They har holding meetings to educate he community in ways to conserve reduce water and reduce borne diseases.

Government Interaction:

Ancillary activities:

The Self-Help Group has plans for planting desirable trees, applying for micro credit-loans for women, developing agriculture projects to reduce unemployment and improving schools with the help of Global Run.

Other Issues:

The project has the support of the District' representative to Parliament. He is committed to providing clean water throughout this District and this will be one of "his" first accomplishments. He accompanied us when we toured the Village to evaluate the worthiness of the project and the entire tour was video taped and appeared on television. The involvement of Blue Planet Run would be prominent in any future publicity efforts. Schools raising funds through their involvement in the Global Run will be adopting two or more of the village schools. Publicity would be generated at all of the schools participating in this year's Global Run (25 schools in 14 countries). And, most important, women and children will no longer have to trek long distances to carry water, jobs would be created through micro credit and agriculture, crops could be grown throughout the year and water borne diseases would be greatly reduced.

The lead is Don Howard. He and his wife will be going to Kenya in April and August to visit the projects and document results through video interviews, pictures and reports. Local Rotary Clubs will be responsible for disbursing funds, monitoring results, maintaining records and solving problems.

Maintenance Revenue:

Water users will be charged a monthly fee. The fees will be collected accounted for by the Itiati Water User's Group, A sub-committee of the Self-AHelp Group. A caretaker will be hired and trained to perform maintenance on the equiplment and to inspect the system for leaks. The District Water Engineer will assist the caretaker on technical matters and perform periodic inspections.

Maintenance Cost:

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $51,600

Geological survey, borehole drilling, submersible pump, control panel and electrical connections.$35,100

Construstion of steel tower and storage tanks.$8,400

Repair of leaking pipes and storage tanks inexisting distribution system. $2,900

Labor, supervision and administration. $5,200

Co Funding Amount: $36,600

Contributions from the Karura-Nairobi Rotary Club, three Rotary Clubs in the Denver, Colorado area, Rotary District 5450 and the Rotary International Foundation.

Community Contribution Amount: $0

The community will provide labor for repairing leaks in the existing distribution system.

Fund Requested: $15,000

Implementing Organization:

  • 2 participants | show more

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    Ned Breslin of Water for People

    A few comments: 1. Kenya is plagued by similar projects that have failed because the hard work of community mobilization and really analyzing the financial capacity of communities to sustain water supplies has been dodged. Collecting "user fees" is a common refrain but what evidence is therfe that this community can maintain the system...

    A few comments:

    1. Kenya is plagued by similar projects that have failed because the hard work of community mobilization and really analyzing the financial capacity of communities to sustain water supplies has been dodged. Collecting "user fees" is a common refrain but what evidence is therfe that this community can maintain the system?

    2. I think supporting a politician is a big mistake. Kenya has a serious corruption problem. One reason why Kenya does not solve this problem is that donors constantly come in and "bail out" the government. I think a better step would be to show that the politician is accessing state finance (which is available in ABUNDANCE for water supply) and show he can deliver. If he can then perhaps reconsider, but do not give him his first delivery - it is his job to access government finance for his constituents and I can provide a LONG list of donors who have financed government to transfer money to the countryside and this needs to happen.

    3. Who is actually constructing the scheme?

    4. Who will be there over time to make sure problems are addressed? It will not be the Rotary Club - that is not what they do.

    Thanks

    Ned

    • Don Howard of Rotary District 5450

      1. The Itiati Village Self Help Group is an established organization that has banded together to overcome the adversity caused by lack of water, unemployment and helath and sanitation issues. They have constructed a dispensary, built a church and formed groups to help widows and children. Their leader, Erastus, is our primary contact and t...

      1. The Itiati Village Self Help Group is an established organization that has banded together to overcome the adversity caused by lack of water, unemployment and helath and sanitation issues. They have constructed a dispensary, built a church and formed groups to help widows and children. Their leader, Erastus, is our primary contact and the person that proposed the project. They have identified the source of water, worked with their Member of Parliment (MP) to obtain funds for the geological survey, identified sections of the existing storage tanks and distribution system that are leaking and need to be repaired or replaced and have devised the system for collecting "user fees". They have also had the HEART NGO come for a medical camp which included hygiene education, AIDS testing, prevention and treatment and counseling. I will ask Erastus for further information on how user fees will be collected. do you have any advice on estimating maintenance costs?

      2. Erastus purpose for inviting the MP was to gain both approval and financila support for this and other projects. One of MP Gachui's purposes in joining us was to convince me that his water district's plan for eventually building a large dam for the entire province was a better solution to the problem. When I explained Rotary was not in the business of supporting large projects, he was supportive of what we were doing in Itiati Village and the Karatina District Hospital, a second project in the area. He provided the funds for the geological surveys.

      3. The "scheme" was developed by Erastus and the Self Help Group. The implementers will be the Euro Water Services Limited, owned by Rotarian Deepak Pandit, and the Itiati Self Help Group.

      4. Although Rotary has no formal system for annual or periodic follow-up inspections, jthey do have Rotarians and there families that live in the area and are affected by the projects. There is also the connection to HEART NGO which keeps us appraised of the situation at other locations where we have worked together. Finally, Erastus and the Self Help Group have a vested interest in maintaining the system and correcting problems.

      Your question is one that I wil look further into for this and future projects.

      Don

      • Ned Breslin of Water for People

        Don: Thanks and why not drop me a direct line so I can send you information on calculating maintenance costs. My address is nbreslin@waterforpeople.org Thanks Ned

        Don:

        Thanks and why not drop me a direct line so I can send you information on calculating maintenance costs. My address is nbreslin@waterforpeople.org

        Thanks

        Ned

    • Ned Breslin of Water for People

      Don: Thanks and why not drop me a direct line so I can send you information on calculating maintenance costs. My address is nbreslin@waterforpeople.org Thanks Ned

      Don:

      Thanks and why not drop me a direct line so I can send you information on calculating maintenance costs. My address is nbreslin@waterforpeople.org

      Thanks

      Ned

  • 2 participants | show more

    Recommendations for Improving Project Design

    Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

    Itiati Sub-location consisting of four villages Beneficiaries – This appears to be a very ambitious project. Besides the 8,500 people that will directly benefit from improved water supply, the project description suggests that water will also be provided to a large regional dispensary, two coffee processing plants, and cultivating...

    Itiati Sub-location consisting of four villages

    Beneficiaries – This appears to be a very ambitious project. Besides the 8,500 people that will directly benefit from improved water supply, the project description suggests that water will also be provided to a large regional dispensary, two coffee processing plants, and cultivating “short term crops”. Coffee-processing operations use large amounts of water for pulping, flushing the residue and discarding pulp. Balancing domestic water use with agricultural demand may generate some friction in the future, especially if demand for water (especially by commercial and agricultural users) exceeds the new system’s capacity.

    Hygiene and Sanitation Behavioral Change - Under “Additional Details”, why is hygiene and sanitation not being directly included in the water project? It is often the case that people are much more interested in getting access to good quality water, than they are about hygiene and sanitation behavioral change (HSBC) promotion. However, tying HSBC directly to water development projects often provides an excellent opportunity to get beneficiaries to buy into the non-water components, such as HSBC. Not doing so is a missed opportunity, especially because this proposed project is focused (at least in part) on the most vulnerable group, namely young school children. Nearly all donors (multilaterals such as World Bank, and large bilateral donors such as Danida) financing rural water supply nowadays routinely incorporate HSBC components into their water projects as a means of maximizing the health benefits of their investment in improved water supply.

    Financing – It appears that all the capital investment is from external donors (with the exception of in-kind labor contributions from the beneficiary communities). Are the two coffee processing plants co-financing the capital investment cost of the proposed water system in proportion to the benefits that they will accrue as a result of the new water system? If not, they should be expected to do so. What percent of the water system output will they use? Is that acceptable to the donor? Are the farmers who stand to benefit from having improved access to water for their crops (mentioned in the “Details” section) going to help pay for the improvements? They certainly should. It seems reasonable that the Itiati Self Help Group who will cultivate short term crops should financially benefit from the new water system, and so some of their profits should go to support the water system. If the District government representative is so committed to providing clean water to his constituents, perhaps he could also find a way to earmark some supplemental government financing to support the system’s capital investment cost. Finally, the $6 per capita investment cost seems unusually low for piped water. Is this realistic? Perhaps it is because there is already an existing water distribution system at the site.

    Technical Issues – You might want to also look into improving the rainwater catchment system at the dispensary in order to minimize water demand from the new system, or even financing rainwater catchment for domestic purposes at the household level. There are some quite useful articles about rainwater catchment at the following websites: http://www.gdrc.org/uem/water/rainwater/introduction.html, and http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/unit/oea59e/ch10.htm#1.1%20rainwater%20harvesting%20from%20rooftop%20catchments

    Community Contributions to Capital Investment – Except for in-kind labor, community contributions appear to be $0, which is not a good idea at all. All beneficiaries should be expected to provide at least some modest portion (e.g., 10-20%) of the capital investment cost. This is standard practice worldwide in rural water supply and sanitation projects. People who don’t pay any upfront costs tend to have little or no feeling of ownership or responsibility for water systems that are parachuted in, and collecting the proposed monthly fees may be difficult. No ownership usually means no sense of responsibility for O&M, let alone equipment replacement or needed system expansion to accommodate steadily growing populations. . What if people don’t pay the water usage fee? Will they be cut off? This is a very common failure mode for rural water systems world-wide, and should be avoided at the beginning.

    Operation and Maintenance Support Costs and Metering - A water usage fee will be charged to fund maintenance efforts, presumably just a fixed amount per household or other user. However, there is no mention of any water meters being used, so there is no incentive for consumers to economize on their use of water. I would strongly recommend that water meters (paid for by each household) be installed on house connections, and that the water fee should be consumption-based. This will have the added advantages of recovering costs from high-volume users (especially the non-residential users) as well as promoting water demand management (e.g., economical use of water). The modest incremental cost (probably less than $10 for each household connection) of installing water meters in house connections will be far more than recovered from the additional water revenue that they will generate.

    • Don Howard of Rotary District 5450

      I think the greatest benefit in being part of the PEER WAter Exchange is what I am learning about how to approach water problems. I really appreciate your comments and they will help both now and on my future journeys to Rotary District 9200 (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea). Two years ago I went to Africa for the first time ...

      I think the greatest benefit in being part of the PEER WAter Exchange is what I am learning about how to approach water problems. I really appreciate your comments and they will help both now and on my future journeys to Rotary District 9200 (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea). Two years ago I went to Africa for the first time and the result was a water harvesting project in a Masaii Village. It was a success story, but not because of my knowledge of alternatives for providing water. On the Masaii and eight subsequent projects I am involved with, there has always been knowledgeable local people that I worked with (water engineers, civil engineers, etc.). In Itiati Village, we are working with a Water Engineer consulting firm, the owner of a large water resource company, the District Water Department and the Self Help Group. In the next few days, I will address each point that you bring up and obtain information from my contacts in Kenya when the answers are beyond me. Once again, thanks for your questions and suggestions.

      Don.

      • Don Howard of Rotary District 5450

        I have been unable to reach my contact at Itiati Village so I'll do the best to answer your questions from what I know. Beneficiaries. The only reason that the project can reach so many people is that there lready exists a distribution and storage system. The coffee "plants" that I saw consisted of open areas with a series of about ei...

        I have been unable to reach my contact at Itiati Village so I'll do the best to answer your questions from what I know.

        Beneficiaries. The only reason that the project can reach so many people is that there lready exists a distribution and storage system. The coffee "plants" that I saw consisted of open areas with a series of about eight short wooden platforms measuring 8' by 40'. Water was brought by pipe to the platforms from a nearby storage tank. The "facility" was part of a community cooperative. There was no water so the operation was closed. The farmers carry the beans to other areas to do whatever they had previously done at these sites.
        The dispensary, which was built by the community SHG, consists of several rooms. It has a storage tank and distribution system, but no water. It was one of the nicest facilities I saw while visiting villages and there are plans to add a wing with beds to facilitate birthing and minor illnesses. There are no motor vehicles in the village and it is located on hills high above Karatina Town, site of the nearest hospital. People have to get to the hospital by foot, bicycle or wheelbarrow down a rutted and, during the rainy season, muddy dirt road. The government provides a nurse and part time doctor.
        Most members of the community grow there own food. The ability to grow crops is limited by the seasonal rainfall. With water, they were able to grow food year around and sell their excess at the market. They can no longer do that.
        Your comment about competition for water is well-taken and something that the community will have to address if the water supply is not adequate.

        Hygiene, sanitation, financing, technical issues, etc. I, frankly, hadn't considered all of these areas on my visit to Itiati and other locations. I'll look into them as soon as I can reach Erastus and follow-up on my visit to the project next May. I have put a lot of trust into the advice of a water engineers and the community SHGs. You, and the other members of the PEER Exchange, are moving this old school-teachers understanding of the complexity and sustainability of water issues to another level. One of the outcomes, will be an emphasis to produce a 'best practices' book so that on the job training i'm going through can be minimized. Thanks for the advice.

    • Don Howard of Rotary District 5450

      I have been unable to reach my contact at Itiati Village so I'll do the best to answer your questions from what I know. Beneficiaries. The only reason that the project can reach so many people is that there lready exists a distribution and storage system. The coffee "plants" that I saw consisted of open areas with a series of about ei...

      I have been unable to reach my contact at Itiati Village so I'll do the best to answer your questions from what I know.

      Beneficiaries. The only reason that the project can reach so many people is that there lready exists a distribution and storage system. The coffee "plants" that I saw consisted of open areas with a series of about eight short wooden platforms measuring 8' by 40'. Water was brought by pipe to the platforms from a nearby storage tank. The "facility" was part of a community cooperative. There was no water so the operation was closed. The farmers carry the beans to other areas to do whatever they had previously done at these sites.
      The dispensary, which was built by the community SHG, consists of several rooms. It has a storage tank and distribution system, but no water. It was one of the nicest facilities I saw while visiting villages and there are plans to add a wing with beds to facilitate birthing and minor illnesses. There are no motor vehicles in the village and it is located on hills high above Karatina Town, site of the nearest hospital. People have to get to the hospital by foot, bicycle or wheelbarrow down a rutted and, during the rainy season, muddy dirt road. The government provides a nurse and part time doctor.
      Most members of the community grow there own food. The ability to grow crops is limited by the seasonal rainfall. With water, they were able to grow food year around and sell their excess at the market. They can no longer do that.
      Your comment about competition for water is well-taken and something that the community will have to address if the water supply is not adequate.

      Hygiene, sanitation, financing, technical issues, etc. I, frankly, hadn't considered all of these areas on my visit to Itiati and other locations. I'll look into them as soon as I can reach Erastus and follow-up on my visit to the project next May. I have put a lot of trust into the advice of a water engineers and the community SHGs. You, and the other members of the PEER Exchange, are moving this old school-teachers understanding of the complexity and sustainability of water issues to another level. One of the outcomes, will be an emphasis to produce a 'best practices' book so that on the job training i'm going through can be minimized. Thanks for the advice.

  • Rating: 1

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    The rating is not reflective of the project but of the fit within PWX. It is unclear how learnings from the past flow into the peer network and from the project itself too. How can Rotary contribute to PWX for peer reviews and sharing?

  • Rating: 1

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    I base my low score on the because I feel that peerwater should be
    evaluating and funding project operators, not Rotary Districts.

  • Rating: 8

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  • Rating: 7

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  • Rating: 6

    review by (only shown to members)

    A fair amount to work out here and I would be cautious about this project

  • Rating: 4

    review by (only shown to members)

    Although my initial rating of this project is mediocre, please refer to my recommendations in the Q&A section that I think would make the proposed project much more acceptable and sustainable.