plan 391Double pit VIP latrines in Guayabita, Camoapa


32 families have need of adequare sanitation; Families will build 26 VIDP (Double pit VIP) latrines.

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Guayabita is a peri-urban community about 1 mile or 1.5 km from the town of Camoapa. It is a large community of about 200 homes.

The people of Guayabita work mainly odd jobs, as maids, washing or ironing clothes, iron, as mason, carpenters or day-laborers on nearby farms. In spite of the higher skill levels in the community, the poverty tends to be higher due to not having land or steady work.

They have a rehabilitated well that El Porvenir supported them with in 2007. However, some of the families lack adequate sanitation. 32 families (26 homes) have no latrines. They are very poor, earning barely enough for food, so they are unable to afford the materials to build new latrines, although they have expressed interest in contributing in some way towards the project material costs.

They are motivated to improve their situation and approached El Porvenir for support to build latrines. They are willing to contribute the labor to dig the holes, line the holes, and build the exterior structures.


Camoapa, Boaco, Nicaragua


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Primary Focus: Sanitation - Households
Secondary Focus: Hygiene Education

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 0

El Porvenir assisted this peri-urban community with a well in 2007. At this time, the community is requesting sanitation in the form of latrines.

School Children Getting Water: 0

People Getting Sanitation: 192

32 families
26 homes

People Getting Other Benefits: 192

Hygiene and sanitary education workshops to ensure improved health in the community as well as proper use and maintenance of latrines. Through the construction of the project, masonry skills are acquired that will help with the long term maintenance. Special emphasis will be given to the rotation of the pits.

Application Type: Project Funding

Start Date: 2011-08-30

Completion Date: 2012-02-28

Technology Used:

El Porvenir has over 20 years of experience helping rural Nicaraguan communities build appropriate technology (wells, latrines, community washing stations, and fuel efficient stoves) as well as providing communities with the tools they need to manage their water, sanitation and forestry resources. The methodology of El Porvenir is based on three key principles: (a) community empowerment through active participation and ownership in all aspects of the project, (b) creation of sustainable organizations in the community to manage resources in the long term, and (c) focus on appropriate technology made from low-cost locally available materials that can be maintained by the community.

El Porvenir projects are demand driven, i.e. the local office of all Nicaraguan staff responds to requests from the community. Once staff verifies the need and feasability of the project. Funds are sought. The municipal authorities and the local community also contributes towards project materials usually by purchasing or collecting local materials. When the remaining funds are available, the construction phase can begin.

The community learns how to build and maintain sanitation infrastructure themselves.
-Construction materiales are purchased and transported to the community by truck and animals
-El Porvenir provides training and technical assistance to the community in construction, maintenance and repair of latrines
-The community builds latrines (hand dig two pits per latrine to depth of 6 feet/2 meters, line with rocks, bricks or stones, install precast concrete slab and box seat, create walls and roof from zinc panels, install ventilation tube).

These latrines are part of a pilot double-pit VIP latrine program (standard for Nicaragua at this time are single pit VIP latrines which are of questionable value in terms of sustainability once the pit fills). The superstructure shells are made of zinc and metal, so as to be easily reused (and moved) when the first pit fills. In a similar way, both pits can be reused as one fills. In pilots so far, we have found the cost to be approximately 20% more than the single pit model (except in the very early models) and provides 33% more volume initially. The first pilots have had several families switch to the second empty pit, but no families have filled up the second pit yet. (Early pilots were 3m deep, as opposed to 2m currently) The pilots are very promising so far.


This is a one phase project.

Community Organization:

The beneficiaries have met with the El Porvenir Promoter and agreed to carry out, use, and maintain the latrines as per the 10 norms on the use of latrines. This includes keeping them in good condition, preventing contamination of the surrounding area, and understanding how this will improve their overall health.

The community will be trained in community organizing techniques and will have a potable water and sanitation committee functioning.

Latrines are built on the property of each family, so each family owns their own latrine through their labor of building it. Community ownership is felt by the community through its identification of its problem, their monetary contribution (at least 5%) and their involvement in the sweat equity of the project.

Government Interaction:

El Porvenir has signed MOUs with our municipal governments. In the case of Camoapa, the government supports the project materials cost at 10%.

Ancillary activities:

Health and hygiene education:
The community learns how to reduce water and sanitation related illnesses through good hygiene practices.
-Identify and train local hygiene and health promoters from the community to reinforce hygiene trainings on an ongoing basis
-Carry out household visits and community workshops to help the community to identify risky behaviors and learn good hygiene practices. Topics covered include: Definition of hygiene, 10 rules for using latrines, Why sanitation is important, Water and sanitation related diseases, The cycle of contamination, Why hand-washing is important, How to maintain and dispose of garbage, How to use and maintain wells and community washing stations, How to treat and use water, Sources of water contamination, Role and responsibilities of Community Water and Sanitation Committee members.
-Create and air health and hygiene announcements on local radio stations to reinforce community health learning and to reach a larger audience.
-Organize community clean up days to reinforce training about environmental sanitation and waste management
-Collect data from local clinics and health centers on incidence of water and sanitation related diseases (diarrhea, skin infections etc.)

Other Issues:

In order to measure the impact of our projects, we collect data several times a year from clinics serving rural districts where we have a high concentration of projects: number of visits due to diarrhea, etc. As the number decreases we feel that hygiene education has been effective.

For more information on the double pit latrine initiative, please see the discussion, simplistic design document and photos at:

Maintenance Revenue:

The health and hygiene education program is described in more detail above. The cost for El Porvenir is this ongoing program.

Maintenance Cost: $100


Prior art before metrics

Cost: $13,830

See Excel sheet. All funds to not sum, as community labor is not incl

Co Funding Amount: $1,118

Municipal government

Community Contribution Amount: $1,690

The community contribution is in-kind for digging the double pits, lining the pits, and installing the exterior structure. Also, the community contributes local materials like sand, and often either purchases additional materials like a bag of cement or helps with the transport of materials.

The total time worked by the community in carrying out this project will be approximately 260 person-days with a value of approximately US$4 per day (wages generally paid in rural area for manual labor).

Fund Requested: $12,712

Implementing Organization:


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    No review of this application

    Rajesh Shah of Peer Water Exchange

    El Porvenir has submitted 2 applications. Only one will be reviewed and the other will inherit its review.

    El Porvenir has submitted 2 applications. Only one will be reviewed and the other will inherit its review.

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Name Status Completion Date Amount Assigned
Double pit VIP latrines in Guayabita, Camoapa Complete - Successful Feb 2012 $12,712