plan 392Drilled well and 20 Latrines in Tule Oriental Central, Camoapa

Summary

11 families have a need for a nearby source of clean water and 20 families have a need for sanitation. Families will build 20 Double Pit VIP latrines and a centrally located well will be drilled in the community.

  • Thumb_tule_oriental_pozo_en_excavaci_n

Background

Tule Oriental Central is a rural community about 11 miles from the town of Camoapa. There is a big need for water and sanitation implementation in this area. They are currently collecting water from waterholes which are open and unprotected from contamination. It is especially difficult to collect water in the rainy season as it makes the steep path very slippery. About 1/3 of the community (20 families) are without a latrine or a sanitary place to go to the bathroom.

The people of Tule Oriental are mainly subsistence farmers growing beans and corn. They work odd jobs washing clothes and as day-laborers.

Tule Oriental has not previously received assistance from El Porvenir. In 1990 they received 30 latrines from an unknown project which are now in bad shape and in 2010 20 families received latrines from the Social Investment Emergency Fund (FISE).

Location

Camoapa, Boaco, Nicaragua

Attachments

  • Xls Blue_Pla...

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Sanitation - Households

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 52

11 families (27 adults, 20 adolescents, 5 children)

School Children Getting Water: 118

The school doesn't have a water source and this well will be installed 30 meters from the school so it will benefit the children as well.

People Getting Sanitation: 135

20 families

People Getting Other Benefits: 55

There are 55 families in Tule Oriental Central according to our community survey. Though, not every family is in need of a latrine, they will all benefit from health and hygiene education, reforestation which will increase the aquifer recharge rate, and the community clean up days.

Application Type: Project Funding

Start Date: 2011-09-10

Completion Date: 2012-05-31

Technology Used:

El Porvenir has over 20 years of experience helping rural Nicaraguan communities build appropriate technology (wells, latrines, community washing stations, and fuel efficient stoves) as well as providing communities with the tools they need to manage their water, sanitation and forestry resources. The methodology of El Porvenir is based on three key principles: (a) community empowerment through active participation and ownership in all aspects of the project, (b) creation of sustainable organizations in the community to manage resources in the long term, and (c) focus on appropriate technology made from low-cost locally available materials that can be maintained by the community.

El Porvenir projects are demand driven, i.e. the local office of all Nicaraguan staff responds to requests from the community. Once staff verifies the need and feasibility of the project. Funds are sought. The municipal authorities and the local community also contribute towards project materials usually by purchasing or collecting local materials. When the remaining funds are available, the construction phase can begin.

The community learns how to build and maintain sanitation infrastructure themselves.
-Construction materials are purchased and transported to the community by truck and animals
-El Porvenir provides training and technical assistance to the community in construction, maintenance and repair of latrines
-The community builds latrines (hand dig two pits per latrine to depth of 6 feet/2 meters, line with rocks, bricks or stones, install precast concrete slab and box seat, create walls and roof from zinc panels, install ventilation tube).

The superstructure shells are made of zinc and metal, so as to be easily reused (and moved) when the first pit fills. In a similar way, both pits can be reused as one fills.

El Porvenir mainly works with hand dug wells which are dug by the community. El Porvenir offers their technical expertise throughout the process and trains the community members how to repair and maintain the well.

In some instances, like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill. There is always a risk of drilling failure as it is a more complicated process than digging. Once the well is drilled, it is sealed and capped to prevent contaminants from entering the well. EP staff will train the community members just like with the hand dug wells on how to maintain and repair the well when needed.

Phases:

This is a one phase project

Community Organization:

The beneficiaries of the latrines, the well, and the parents of the 118 school children have met with the El Porvenir Promoter and agreed to carry out the work needed to implement these projects. They have agreed to use, take care of and maintain them. This includes keeping the latrines and well in good condition, preventing contamination of the surrounding area and implementing a cleaning rotation.

The community will be trained in community organizing techniques and will have a functioning potable water and sanitation committee.

Latrines are built on the property of each family, so each family owns their own latrine through their labor of building it. Community ownership is felt by the community through its identification of its problem, their monetary contribution (at least 5%) and their involvement in the sweat equity of the project.

Government Interaction:

El Porvenir has signed MOUs with our municipal governments. In the case of Camoapa, the government supports the project materials cost at 10%.

Ancillary activities:

Health and hygiene education:
The community learns how to reduce water and sanitation related illnesses through good hygiene practices.
-Identify and train local hygiene and health promoters from the community to reinforce hygiene trainings on an ongoing basis
-Carry out household visits and community workshops to help the community to identify risky behaviors and learn good hygiene practices. Topics covered include: Definition of hygiene, 10 rules for using latrines, Why sanitation is important, Water and sanitation related diseases, The cycle of contamination, Why hand-washing is important, How to maintain and dispose of garbage, How to use and maintain wells and community washing stations, How to treat and use water, Sources of water contamination, Role and responsibilities of Community Water and Sanitation Committee members.
-Create and air health and hygiene announcements on local radio stations to reinforce community health learning and to reach a larger audience.
-Organize community clean up days to reinforce training about environmental sanitation and waste management
-Collect data from local clinics and health centers on incidence of water and sanitation related diseases (diarrhea, skin infections etc.)

Other Issues:

In order to measure the impact of our projects, we collect data several times a year from clinics serving rural districts where we have a high concentration of projects: number of visits due to diarrhea, etc. As the number decreases we feel that hygiene education has been effective.

Maintenance Revenue:

The health and hygiene education program is described in more detail above.

We encourage the community to start a maintenance fund. They decide on an amount and collect it from benefiting families each month. When repairs need to be made to the well, they can dip into this fund.

In addition, our health and hygiene promoters do surprise home visits to see if the families' latrines are well kept and that they are practicing good hygiene habits.

Maintenance Cost: $100

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $19,792

See attached spreadsheet

Co Funding Amount: $8,000

See attached spreadsheet

Community Contribution Amount: $1,660

The community contribution is in-kind for digging the double pit latrines, lining the pits, installing the exterior structure, and installing the rope pump for the well. Also the community is contributing local materials like sand, rocks and cement.

Fund Requested: $10,132

Implementing Organization:

Attachments

  • Xls Blue_Pla...
  • 2 participants | show more

    Methodology, cost and design of latrines

    James Dien Bui of East Meets West Foundation

    I am pleased to review this project application. Overall, I found it to be well organized and thorough. I also like the fact that there are matching funds from other sources, including government and participant contribution. The monitoring and evaluation includes both random verification of households and data collection at health institu...

    I am pleased to review this project application. Overall, I found it to be well organized and thorough. I also like the fact that there are matching funds from other sources, including government and participant contribution. The monitoring and evaluation includes both random verification of households and data collection at health institutions. Accordingly, I have three questions regarding the following:

    Re: Community organizing methodology
    In your proposal, it is stated, "The community will be trained in community organizing techniques and will have a functioning potable water and sanitation committee." Please describe the approach and rationale for the sanitation committee. How will the sanitation committee utilize organizing techniques on behalf of the committee, both short-term and long-term? Do they have an active role with O&M? If so, please describe.

    Re: Cost of latrines
    Looking at the budget for latrines, $8,600 is set aside for 20 latrines, which breaks down to $430 per latrine. Please explain the cost of this latrine in a budget narrative and the rationale for the total amount.

    Re: Design of latrines
    Complementing the cost of latrines, please provide an example of the latrine design and how it is appropriate for this particular project (i.e. environment, size, durability and etc.).

    Thank you and I look forward to your response.

    Best,
    James

    • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

      Sorry for the delay in responding, we were in the field last week. Re: Community organizing methodology The community usually forms (or already has an existing structure) a local water/sanitation committee prior to requesting assistance from El Porvenir. They submit a proposal of the communities’ need along with a map of the community...

      Sorry for the delay in responding, we were in the field last week.

      Re: Community organizing methodology
      The community usually forms (or already has an existing structure) a local water/sanitation committee prior to requesting assistance from El Porvenir. They submit a proposal of the communities’ need along with a map of the community and a community census to El Porvenir (EP). Local EP staff then go to the community and survey/verify the need.

      The importance/rationale for the committee is that they are taking the initiative to help their own community and will be the main actor in the maintenance (O&M) of the project in the long term. We do not initiate projects; we respond to requests and empower the communities to help themselves creating lasting, sustainable results. If the committee does not exist in the community, or even if it does, EP staff will provide/offer training to the community/committee on how the different roles such as coordinator, treasurer, etc. function and also on the importance of a well functioning committee.

      The water and sanitation committees will be trained on the repair and maintenance of the well and latrines, providing them the knowledge to maintain their clean water and sanitation projects. Also, since the community themselves build, they learn about the maintenance as the project proceeds. Several committee members will also be trained through our train the trainer program on basic hygiene and health education practices. Once trained the committee members will then take on their role as trainer and share these practices as well as maintenance techniques with other community members.

      In the short-term the sanitation committee will utilize organizing techniques through the training of their community. The community members will see long-term benefits in the improvements of their health and well-being as a result of these trainings.

      Re: Cost of latrines
      A latrine typically breaks down in this way, with the transport percentage varying from 20-35% depending on community distance and access:

      29% metallic superstructure (tin)
      28% cinder blocks, sand and cement
      14% slab and bench
      28% transport to the community
      1% Misc items: ventilation tube, fly screen, etc.

      The superstructure is expensive, but it is longer lasting, designed to stand up as pits are switched back and forth. Cinder blocks are used to line the pits to avoid latrines from collapsing in rainy season.

      Re: Design of latrines
      The VIP latrine is the national government standard in Nicaragua and well received culturally. It is a durable design and lasts. The problem has been with having a single pit and the lack of sustainability around that. This double pit design, while new for Nicaragua, attempts to overcome the sustainability question while fitting into the current culturally acceptable VIP model.

      Environmentally, our staff evaluate the water table to ensure that the latrine will not contaminate any water sources.

      Under photos in the below PWX application link is the double pit latrine design.
      http://peerwater.org/apps/391-Double-pit-VIP-latrines-in-Guayabita-Camoapa/

      Thanks for the great questions, James!

  • 2 participants | show more

    budget file

    Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

    Hello, The project is well planned however I could not open the budget file. In case it does open for others can you kindly send it to me at this email address thank you. Waiting to see the responses of the above questions. Best Wishes Meera

    Hello,

    The project is well planned however I could not open the budget file. In case it does open for others can you kindly send it to me at this email address
    thank you.

    Waiting to see the responses of the above questions.
    Best Wishes
    Meera

    • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

      Hi Meera, I emailed a budget to you. Let me know if you didn't receive it and I'll be happy to send it again! Thanks, Alexis

      Hi Meera,
      I emailed a budget to you. Let me know if you didn't receive it and I'll be happy to send it again!
      Thanks,
      Alexis

  • 3 participants | show more

    Drilled Well

    Madan Kumar of Team Blue

    Hi, I had a couple questions: 1) How is the water drawn from the well? Hand pump or electric pump? Is that included in the budget for the well? Could we get a breakdown for the well budget? 2) Is the contamination of the ground water mainly from human waste or is there chemical run-off? 3) What treatment or filtration will be used to at...

    Hi,
    I had a couple questions:
    1) How is the water drawn from the well? Hand pump or electric pump? Is that included in the budget for the well? Could we get a breakdown for the well budget?
    2) Is the contamination of the ground water mainly from human waste or is there chemical run-off?
    3) What treatment or filtration will be used to attain potable water? I'm assuming that cost is included in the maintenance budget.
    4) You mention reforestation, is that being addressed through community workshops and education?
    5) Is there anything to be learned from latrines built in 1990? Did they fall in to bad shape because of lack of maintenance/training, lack of acceptance by the local community or a design that was not appropriate for the territory?

    thanks,
    Madan

    • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

      Hi Madan, 1) The water is drawn up using a rope pump (hand pump) which is included in the budget. Below is a breakdown of the budget for the well: 75% Drilling rig 6.5% PVC well installation (below surface), sand, gravel 6% water testing, pumping test, etc. 12.5% surface infrastructure: cement, bricks, rope pump 2)Currently in Tule Orie...

      Hi Madan,
      1) The water is drawn up using a rope pump (hand pump) which is included in the budget. Below is a breakdown of the budget for the well:
      75% Drilling rig
      6.5% PVC well installation (below surface), sand, gravel
      6% water testing, pumping test, etc.
      12.5% surface infrastructure: cement, bricks, rope pump

      2)Currently in Tule Oriental the community is collecting water from water holes which are contaminated as they are not protected from outside sources. They are vulnerable to animal waste, dirt and bacteria. In this community, many are defecating in the open as these 20 families do not have latrines.

      Generally in this area, ground water at the levels of the planned drilling have been found to be safe for drinking, but water testing will be completed in this case. The installation of sanitation will help ensure this. Chemical runoff has not been a problem in this area.

      3) We believe in protecting the water at it’s source. Providing latrines to each family in the community plays a large role in that. When people have a clean, sanitary place to go to the bathroom they will no longer be forced to go outdoors which contaminates the ground water. Once the well is finished it will be sealed and capped which will prevent contaminants from entering the well. We also do frequent water tests to determine the quality of the water. If needed the community members will chlorinate the water; we teach them this process as well.

      4) Yes, as part of our holistic approach to clean water we encourage each community to reforest. We have a reforester in each region who works with the communities to strategically plant trees in the micro watershed.

      5)The latrines built in 1990 fell into bad shape by a combination of them filling up and a lack of maintenance. They were built by an organization that gave away the latrines without any community contribution, leading the community to wait for another organization to come and build them more. We hope to break this cycle by getting communities involved in the labor and financials.

      Earlier this year we switched from using a single-pit VIP latrine to using double pit latrines. Single pits worked well, but they have a finite capacity and fill up in 5-7 years. We found that after they filled up, families weren’t taking the initiative to build another and were returning to open defecation. We had been piloting double pits since 2007 and earlier this year we switched to using them completely. The beneficiary can use one pit until it fills, then move the superstructure to the second pit. Once the second pit fills, then the first pit can be emptied as the bacteria will be dead by that time (usually 2-3 years later) The superstructure can be moved back and forth between pits endlessly. This will be much more sustainable going forward.

      Thanks,
      Rob

      • Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

        In your application you say you will have a hand dug well. And here you say drilled. Which is it? How do you locate the well? Are you using a hydrological study or a water diviner? Thanks, Rajesh

        In your application you say you will have a hand dug well. And here you say drilled. Which is it?

        How do you locate the well?
        Are you using a hydrological study or a water diviner?

        Thanks,
        Rajesh

        • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

          Hi Rajesh, Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill. For dr...

          Hi Rajesh,
          Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill.

          For drilling, 90% of the time we locate the well by using a hydrological study, but in some cases it is not necessary as we are able to indicate by the topography of the land.

          Thanks

          • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

            To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

            To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

        • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

          To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

          To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

      • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

        Hi Rajesh, Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill. For dr...

        Hi Rajesh,
        Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill.

        For drilling, 90% of the time we locate the well by using a hydrological study, but in some cases it is not necessary as we are able to indicate by the topography of the land.

        Thanks

        • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

          To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

          To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

      • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

        To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

        To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

    • Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

      In your application you say you will have a hand dug well. And here you say drilled. Which is it? How do you locate the well? Are you using a hydrological study or a water diviner? Thanks, Rajesh

      In your application you say you will have a hand dug well. And here you say drilled. Which is it?

      How do you locate the well?
      Are you using a hydrological study or a water diviner?

      Thanks,
      Rajesh

      • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

        Hi Rajesh, Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill. For dr...

        Hi Rajesh,
        Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill.

        For drilling, 90% of the time we locate the well by using a hydrological study, but in some cases it is not necessary as we are able to indicate by the topography of the land.

        Thanks

        • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

          To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

          To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

      • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

        To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

        To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

    • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

      Hi Rajesh, Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill. For dr...

      Hi Rajesh,
      Sorry if there was any confusion. The application also states it is a drilled well. In the Approach and Technology I mention that we generally work with hand dug wells, but then further explain that in some instances like that of Tule Oriental, the water is too deep to reach by digging so the best option is to drill.

      For drilling, 90% of the time we locate the well by using a hydrological study, but in some cases it is not necessary as we are able to indicate by the topography of the land.

      Thanks

      • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

        To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

        To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

    • Rob Bell of El Porvenir

      To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

      To clarify, yes, this well site(s) was located using a hydrogeological study carried out about 6 months ago. Actually all of our drilled wells, although few, have been located in this way. 90%+ have been successful drills.

  • Rating: 6

    review by (only shown to members)

    Well planned project but the maintenance cost seems to be high. And also the cost per person is high $64 instead of $30-$35 as expected by BPN. The tracking system is not clear to assess the current status of the historical projects. Several issues like poor maintenance, mismanagement, community contributions and also as the implementers pull out the projects may result in closing down. Uploading recent photos taken of the projects implemented in 2007, 2008 or after to see if the community is maintaining the projects properly. Each project whether it’s a water project or sanitation project, should have its own ID number to track. It is advisable to give a status report of all the historical projects in the background section perhaps or upload reports during the next application round as Project Well publishes brief report in the annual newsletter.

  • Rating: 5

    review by (only shown to members)

    Overall, I thought the proposal was well organized and does have a clear approach. However, my questions on some very important details still have not been answered, particularly regarding price and design of the latrine.

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    This type of project is the basics of sanitation in rural communities and El Provenir has been working at the solution for many years and is well known in the area. I am confident that they will be of further service with this project.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Good clear project. Reporting during implementation and long past implementation is a concern. Esp. we know that EP grows deep roots and they have the info!

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    The application detail presents a clear picture of both the need and proposed solution. At the end of the evaluation period the excellent questions raised by other reviewers seem to have been answered. The drilled well appears necessary. The community tried to do a hand-dug well but the aquifer is too low. Sealing and capping the well will prevent contamination of the well. Double pit latrines will aid sanitation and prevent contaminants from leaching into the area around the well. All of the elements of the project seem to work well together to accomplish the goal – clean water for this village.

Name Status Completion Date Amount Assigned
Drilled well and 20 Latrines in Tule Oriental Central, Camoapa Complete - Successful May 2012 $10,132