plan 41Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Tanks with community

Summary

Creation of two rainwater tanks with community centres on top of them.

Background

According to a survey report, it was discovered that these communities are vulnerable to diseases such as diarrhoea, dysentery, worm infestation and other water borne related diseases because they lack any safe drinking water source. The only available water source is open to unhygienic conditions, and a well that was dug for the community of Masampa was abandoned when the rebellion reached them and it got spoilt (handpump stolen and water is dirty) there after. Another contributing factor that was identified is the unavailability of a public roof. The only suitable structure is a primary school located between the two villages but the distance to this school would be too far.
The idea came up to create one tank in each village, enlarge the top platform and create a roof on top of this platform. So the communities have a RWHT as well as a community centre. No problems will occur because the tank uses a roof of a private house and the community has a place to gather. This structure could later on be equipped with solar facilities (other project) and be locations for night classes.

Location

Nothern Province, Port Loko District, Sierra Leone

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Capacity Building

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 736

• Masampa : 350 people
• Ferry Bonda sirma : 386 people

School Children Getting Water:

all children of the village

People Getting Sanitation: 0

purely drinking water

People Getting Other Benefits: 760

• Training on maintenance, repairs of the entire system and chlorinating the water: 40 people
• Community people to create the tanks and community centres : 60 people
• Hygiene education and capacity building 736 people

Application Type: Project Funding

Start Date: 2007-01-01

Completion Date: 2007-04-01

Technology Used:

Raiwater harvesting tanks with India Mark II hand pump with connections to the rooftop of the community learning centres constructed.

Phases:

one phase

Community Organization:

Ten man committee will be organised in each of the villages taking representation such as the headman, youths, women, religious groups, etc. Such a committee will be responsible to assist in the construction and the sustenance of the system. They will oversee and report to Safer Future Youth Development Project who in turn will have to communicate to the donors.

Government Interaction:

Ancillary activities:

• Training of people in Hygiene education, pump repairs and maintenance and the chlorination of the water.
• Summoning of community meetings to ensure community ownership and the sustenance of the project after completion.

Other Issues:

Maintenance Revenue:

The water usage will be done like this:
Community people Le 200 (8 U.S.Cent) per each bucket.

Such money will be kept by the committee and supervised by Safer Future Youth Development Project it will then be used to maintenance and do whatever activities to upkeep the life span of the project.

Maintenance Cost:

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $34,560

Costs per Structure
No/Item/Cost (SL Leone)/Cost (Euro)/Cost (US dollar)
1./Material/25,000,000/7,575.76/8,928.57
2./Activity Costs/12,000,000/3,636.36/4,285.71
3./Transportation/5,000,000/1,515.15/1,785.71
4./Project Support/6,375,000/1,931.82/2,276.79
/Total/48,375,000/14,659.09/17,276.79

Total for both Structures
Le 97,750,000/29,320 Euro/34,560 USD

Co Funding Amount: $0

Community Contribution Amount:

• Routine maintenance after construction
• Provision of land, sand, bush sticks, and unskilled labour

Fund Requested: $34,560

Implementing Organization:

  • 2 participants | show more

    alternative water sources

    Patricia Dandonoli of WaterAid

    Your unique submission addresses both the need for water storage and for a community learning space. We are pleased that this project is concerned not only with elementary needs like access to water, but also with social needs, such as access to a community learning center. We have one question regarding the inherent difficulties associa...

    Your unique submission addresses both the need for water storage and for a community learning space. We are pleased that this project is concerned not only with elementary needs like access to water, but also with social needs, such as access to a community learning center. We have one question regarding the inherent difficulties associated with climate variability. While Sierra Leone has high average annual rainfall from May to November, given the vagaries of climate, will there be a mechanism to ration the water over time so that it lasts through the dry season or an alternative water source?

    • Idriss Kamara of Safer Future Youth Development Project

      Actually, the water is purposely for drinking. Hence, it can serve until the next rainy season.This will be ensured by the management committee set up and sensitization done with the people to know what it will impact them if they waste the water. However, we already thought of upgrading the existing water sources so that they can be used...

      Actually, the water is purposely for drinking. Hence, it can serve until the next rainy season.This will be ensured by the management committee set up and sensitization done with the people to know what it will impact them if they waste the water. However, we already thought of upgrading the existing water sources so that they can be used for other purposes aside drinking.

  • 2 participants | show more

    Capacity of storage tank, rainfall, per person cost and community contribution

    Thomas Palgadhmal of Watershed Organization Trust

    We appreciate your good work providing safe drinking water through RWH technology. 1. As per the description given in the application, it is understood that in each village, one storage tank would be constructed and rainwater harvesting will be stored in these tanks. We would like to know: i. What is the average rainfall in your area ...

    We appreciate your good work providing safe drinking water through RWH technology.

    1. As per the description given in the application, it is understood that in each village, one storage tank would be constructed and rainwater harvesting will be stored in these tanks. We would like to know:
    i. What is the average rainfall in your area
    ii. What would be the storage capacity of the tank.
    iii. How much drinking water per family per day would be available and whether the same would be sufficient throughout the year.
    iv. The community will pay US cent 8 per bucket which seems to be expensive at our end for the people to afford. How would they keep the track and maintain the account.
    v. The cost of 2 structures is US$ 34560 and the total beneficiaries are 736 inhabitants. The per person cost comes to 46.96 which seems to be high.
    vi. What would be the approximate percentage of the community contribution and whether the same is in cash or kind.

    • Idriss Kamara of Safer Future Youth Development Project

      sorry, for the long delay in answering... let's start with answering the last question first :) vI) the community contributes on the one hand with unskilled labour (they will excavate the tank and help in the construction, supervised by our engineers) and on the other hand with materials (mainly sand and stones available in the area) v)...

      sorry, for the long delay in answering...

      let's start with answering the last question first :)

      vI) the community contributes on the one hand with unskilled labour (they will excavate the tank and help in the construction, supervised by our engineers) and on the other hand with materials (mainly sand and stones available in the area)

      v) If you compare the cost with tanks of the same size (100.000 litres) the cost is indeed higher. The "problem" in those two communities is, that there is no public roof (no school, community hall, etc.) in the villages. Since we have bad experience with using private facilities for community projects we have two choices: either no project or we have to create this public roof as part of the project. Due to the lack of any community hall in this villages we decided to use the tank as the base floor, extend it a little bit and create a roof on top of this structure. This project is therefore not only for drinking water (although the primary focus is) but also to give the communities a place for general gatherings ans social activities throughout the years.

      iv) the actual cost is set up from the community committee and is only suggested by us. Le 200 for 3 gal of drinking water will be collected by the committee and a list will have to be kept. Since the communities are remote they will probably not take the money to an account but since the committee consists of representatives of every group of the village, the should be able to supervise themselves. Of course, Safer Future will still check them once in a while and give them an introduction training.

      iii) 200.000 litres (both tanks) for 736 people will give everybody about 1 litre per day (the rainy season lasts about 3 months). In case they need more money, the raised funds can be used to refill the tank with water from a reservoir (firefighters can supply it)

      ii) 100.000 litres for one tank

      i) i don't have figures around, but the tank at our headquarters was full within one week and we are located in an area where the rainfalls are not that plenty....

  • 2 participants | show more

    Multiple Uses of Water

    Susan Davis of CARE

    I note that the plan is to use the harvested rainwater only for drinking. However we know that people need water to cook, wash, do laundry, etc. There is a hygiene education component to this program as well. How will people in the community be able to maintain good hygiene without access to adequate quantities of water? Have you consi...

    I note that the plan is to use the harvested rainwater only for drinking. However we know that people need water to cook, wash, do laundry, etc. There is a hygiene education component to this program as well. How will people in the community be able to maintain good hygiene without access to adequate quantities of water? Have you considered multiple needs/uses of water and including training on point of use treatment for water from alternative sources that could be used for purposes other than drinking?

    • Idriss Kamara of Safer Future Youth Development Project

      The money collected can be used to refill the tank. The water supplied is coming from a water reservoir from the hilly and is drinking water too...

      The money collected can be used to refill the tank. The water supplied is coming from a water reservoir from the hilly and is drinking water too...

  • 2 participants | show more

    Overall Assessment - Unclear design and high cost

    Rick McGowan of East Meets West Foundation

    Demand for Water - Let’s start with the 736 people, in two different villages, each with its own rainwater catchment (RWC) tank. For simplicity, let’s say that each village has an average population of 368 people. At 30 liters per capita per day, that’s a daily demand of 11,000 liters. If each tank stores half a day...

    Demand for Water - Let’s start with the 736 people, in two different villages, each with its own rainwater catchment (RWC) tank. For simplicity, let’s say that each village has an average population of 368 people. At 30 liters per capita per day, that’s a daily demand of 11,000 liters. If each tank stores half a day’s consumption, then each tank has to have a capacity of about 5.5 cubic meters.

    System Design

    Tank Choice - You have a choice between a brick, ferrocement, or steel tank. Steel is easiest, but probably most expensive. Ferrocement is more difficult to build, but cheaper than a steel tank. Brick is relatively easy to build, but probably heavier than the ferrocement or steel tank. The quality of the constructed tanks (ferrocement or brick) depends upon the skills of the local builders.

    Water Source – the main focus of your plan (and its title) refers to rainwater catchment. I don’t know of any place where rainfall is sufficient to provide enough water to a community on a year around basis. There almost always has to be some supplemental system. In your case, you briefly mention the hand pumps. According to one internet source: “From October to March, during the period of low sun, the weather is generally dry with many fine, hot, sunny days. The season of high sun, from April to September, is the rainy season. The rainfall increases to a peak in July and August and then decreases until rain has almost ceased by November.”

    Layout – You need a better description (a drawing would help) of the proposed system. I don’t understand what you mean by the idea to: “create one tank in each village, enlarge the top platform and create a roof on top of this platform. So the communities have a RWHT as well as a community centre. No problems will occur because the tank uses a roof of a private house and the community has a place to gather.” What’s a RWHT? Presumably the “RWT” is for rain water tank”. What’s the “H” – “holding”?

    Second, I don’t understand from the description that you intend to “create one tank in each village and enlarge the top platform and create a roof on top of this platform” whether the water tank is on the ground or on top of the community center. I realize that the title of the project is “Creation of two rainwater tanks with community centres on top of them.” If you are going to use hand pumps, you should mention that in the title.

    If the storage tank is indeed on the bottom (i.e., bottom of the tank at ground level) then you would lose the possibility of having much distribution capability, if you wanted to pipe water to another part of the village and use a public standpipe there. However, the advantage of a ground-based tank is that you wouldn’t have to build the required strong base for the tank if it were overhead.

    If could have the tank on the roof of the community center, but you would need a very sound structure for the community center roof, so that the tank would not collapse the roof. Water weighs 1 kg per liter, and that means that you will have 5,500 kg of water sitting on top of the community center. You would not want to have a community center underneath it, unless you have enough money to build a very sturdy roof. For example, I would be very surprised if the school roof would be strong enough to support a 5.5 m3 tank. If I had a private house that was already built, I would not assume that it had the capability of supporting a water tank weighing 5,500 kg. You need to present a much clearer description of the design you are considering, and a realistic cost estimate for the support structure for the proposed water tank.

    Operation and Maintenance - Who is going to be responsible to keep the tank filled using the hand pumps? Will they get paid? If so, who will pay them? Are pump parts readily available locally when the pump needs fixing? You should check out the recommendations of the huge effort that the World Bank put into a world-wide hand pump program back in the early 80’s to see what the lessons learned were. Lack of convenient access to parts was a major problem.

    Financing and O&M – Even hand pumps break down eventually. Who will buy the spare parts, and where will they buy them? Are there local pump distributors who can provide parts on short notice? Are people willing to pay some small amount for a skilled worked to take care of the water pump and tank? Is le 200 enough to cover the pumper(s) wages, and spare parts for the hand pumps? I’m not sure about the proposed costs, as it would largely be driven by the choice of what type of tank to use, and how much they cost locally. Therefore, I cannot comment in any detail on the proposed pricing.

    However, I do have one concern that was mentioned by another reviewer, that being the VERY high cost per capita of the proposed system. You are proposing a project cost of $34,560 for the two tanks, two hand pumps, some shallow hand dug wells, and two modest community centers. Your cost structure does not allow me to separate out the water system cost from that of the community structures. I’ll guess that the community centers are about 25% of the overall cost (you need a more detailed cost breakdown in your revised proposal). That leaves about $26,000 for the water systems. Serving only 736 people, that’s a per capita cost of $35. Most places, assuming that you had a reasonably easily available groundwater source, you could build a decent piped water system for $25 per person. Thus, you cost estimate seems unreasonably high for the level of service you are proposing.

    Water Treatment - Why do you want to chlorinate rainwater? That is usually not required, unless it is left in the storage tank so long that it begins to grow things. Are you expecting a significant bird problem or some other potential source of contamination?

    • Idriss Kamara of Safer Future Youth Development Project

      We made the right tank choice since in that area there is no possibility of having a pipe borne water supply. None has been in existence and for water wells they do get dried up within two years of their life span. We have sufficient rainfall in these parts of the country even up to December. Therev is enough of rain falling at that part ...

      We made the right tank choice since in that area there is no possibility of having a pipe borne water supply. None has been in existence and for water wells they do get dried up within two years of their life span.

      We have sufficient rainfall in these parts of the country even up to December. Therev is enough of rain falling at that part of the country.

      it was a typograhical mistake to have left the H out. It is part of the RWHT meaning rainwater harvesting tank. These coomunities donot hav public properties such as a school that is why we want to have one, i.e. a community centre. The community centre will be constructed over the RWHTank inorder to harvest the rainwater from the roof top. Our rain water tanks uses hand pumps.We are not putting the tank above the roof of the building. The cost estimate done is very realistic, yes we are pretty sure of that. The hand pumps are real and readily available here and we are assured of them.The pump attendant would not be paid as he is part of the committee and has been part of the MOU that anyone can serve thus when the need arise.
      Maintenance would be taken care of by the water usage fee, especially in terms of chlorinating the water . The hand pumps we use here aren't easy to get damaged if they are not are stolen. The cost determined is not very high as you concerned. We can give detailed description of such projects but there is a limitation of proposals submitted to this website. RWHT are colection of water at a strady point and therefore needs chlorine to purify the water at intervals.

    • Idriss Kamara of Safer Future Youth Development Project

      The suggestion with the plan is a good one to explain better, what is meant. Next time... We want to build rainwater harvesting tanks in both villages that are underground like the three we already created. Each tank will be about 13 feet in height but most of the tank will be underground. Only two to three feet are above ground. So this ...

      The suggestion with the plan is a good one to explain better, what is meant. Next time...

      We want to build rainwater harvesting tanks in both villages that are underground like the three we already created. Each tank will be about 13 feet in height but most of the tank will be underground. Only two to three feet are above ground. So this platform showing out of the ground will be enlarged in order to create a bigger even and open space. On the border of this space there will be some pillars holding the roof that creates shadow, protects from rain and most of all is used to harvest the rain and fill the tank below.

      So the project is not purely for the collection of rainwater but also to provide the community a place to hold public meetings and social gatherings. If you only look at the cost for the water, it is indeed a very expensive project. However, to host a full community on top of a 130sqfeet place is not possible so there's additional cost for the extension of the basement and of course, the roof....

      I hope I could explain our aims a little bit better...

  • Rating: 5

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    Where there are no roofs, one needs to not force Rooftop RWH. Other forms of capturing rain for watershed treatment and groundwater recharge should be part of the toolkit. This means learning from others and continuing this South-South dialog.

  • Rating: 8

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  • Rating: 4

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  • Rating: 5

    review by (only shown to members)

    Strength: Good solution for heavy rainfall region
    Weakness: Specific plans unclear from proposal

  • Rating: 7

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Name Status Completion Date Amount Assigned
RWHT for two rural communities in Magbontoso Complete - Success, Late Dec 2008 $14,960