plan 540Arsenic Safe Drinking Water: North 24 Parganas -Set 8B (10)

Summary

Sustainable, community-based mitigation program that provides safe water through bi-tech wells (also known as ‘bore-dugwells’), and conducts public education on water-related health issues and personal hygiene practices.

Background

In India, more than 100 million people of the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra belt are at risk of arsenic poisoning. Five states are facing this crisis; in West Bengal alone, more than six million people are drinking crystal clear but arsenic-contaminated water from private and community tubewells. Epidemiological studies show that 1 in 100 people would die if exposed to an arsenic concentration of 0.05 mg/L in drinking water, and 1 in 50 would die if exposed to 0.1 mg/L (a common arsenic level in the private tubewells of many villages in West Bengal). Since 2001, Project Well has been providing arsenic-safe water to the rural communities by constructing shallow dugwells that tap water from unconfined aquifers that contains no arsenic. Since then, after extensive observation and research, we have modified the design to a bore-cum-dugwell that we have named bi-tech well—these improved wells are able to provide water all throughout the year. We have also implemented a Follow-Up/Surveillance Program, through which regular monitoring and evaluation of the utility of these bi-tech wells is done so that the community-based programs become sustainable. A chlorine-based disinfectant called ‘Theoline’ is administered weekly to control the growth of bacteria. No reports of diarrheal diseases have been received from the beneficiaries during the monthly field visits. Earthen, or ‘mawtka’, filters are used by villagers to remove any odor or turbidity that might be present due to the iron or other impurities. More than 7000 people use water from these wells. Over the past decade, through the surveillance program we could assess that 25% of the wells have been closed; most of the closed wells were constructed during the first few years of the program. The reasons for closure are usually technical faults, unsuitable site selection, non-cooperation from locals or panchayet, and lack of outreach programs. For the past four years, after a revision in the design of the well and an intensification of the awareness programs, demand for Project Well bi-tech wells has increased.

Location

Swarupnagar, North 24 Parganas / West Bengal, India

Attachments

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  • Xlsx PW_budge...

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Hygiene Education

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 400

The consumer demographic data will be entered after registers are created, when the communities start drinking from the bi-tech wells. The data will be computerized by the end of 2014 or beginning of 2015. Construction of 20 bi-tech wells was completed in 2013 and construction of 40 bi-tech wells was completed in 2012. The total number of consumers from the sources constructed in 2012 is currently 1323, while the expected maximum number of consumers is 1600. Many wells are underused; hence Project Well continues its efforts to educate people on the dangers of drinking arsenic-contaminated water. The strategy of awareness meetings has changed once again, with Projector Programs being held every Friday and health meetings held on Tuesdays and Thursdays in communities where fewer than seven families are using the water. Village meetings are also ongoing virtually throughout the year, before and after construction of the wells.
Demographic data are in the process of collection and being entered in the computer. The demographic data collected from 23 communities are entered in the computer database. They are as follows--
Total consumers: 1112
Total number of families: 277
Male: 565
Female: 547
Students: 338 (includes males and females)
Children <5: 91 (includes males and females)

Hashi Rashi School, PW157, receives water from this well. There are 121 students and three teachers in this primary school. In addition this well is also used by 13 families comprising of 54 people for drinking and cooking.

School Children Getting Water: 0

not known yet

People Getting Sanitation: 0

People Getting Other Benefits: 37

It is hard to assess how many other people are benefiting from the well program. Indirectly, many people benefit because the materials, labor and transport are all sourced from the immediate locality. During site selection, several village meetings are held during which people are educated on the importance of drinking arsenic-free, bacteria-free water. Health meetings are also held in the communities. These meetings are all open to whoever would like to attend, and they discuss health and hygiene issues beyond arsenic contamination. Details are available in the 2012 newsletter, attached to this application.

The persons receiving other benefits directly are:

1. Local NGO staff – 12.
2. Construction workers: dugwell and bore-well diggers(13), handpump fitters (3), masons (6), person who writes the sponsor plates (1), tin frame fitters (2).

Application Type: Project Funding

Start Date: 2014-01-01

Completion Date: 2014-12-31

Technology Used:

Details on approach, technology, etc., are now available in the step-by-step well program guidelines available on the Project Well website and also attached to this application.
In short, we have been working in the area for more than a decade now and our project is well-known in the area. However, in new villages or areas under different panchayet we meet local government officials to discuss the program. One or two panchayet members introduce the field staff to the villagers during the site selection phase. From there, the field staff takes the responsibility of organizing the village meetings and, at the same time, they collect water from two tubewells to confirm the need for arsenic-free bi-tech wells in the community.
The bi-tech wells are a combination of borewell and dugwell, this design facilitates water provision throughout the year to a larger number of people. The borewell is a 10-foot long pipe 8 inches in diameter that is inserted in the 15-foot dugwell portion. A detailed description of the design is available in the Project Well guidelines.

Phases:

Our program is in one phase that lasts 12 months. During this one year, site selection, water tests for arsenic in tubewells, pilot tests to detect a water bearing sand layer, boring, digging, housing of the bi-tech wells and training of the communities.

Community Organization:

During the village meetings, the community decides who will donate a small plot of land on which to construct the well. The site should match the criteria as mentioned in the guidelines. From the moment the site is selected, the community is told that the source of arsenic-free water is theirs and they will maintain it with the help of the field worker in charge. After six months or one year, if the well provides good water that meets the satisfaction of the community, the 'handover package' with detailed instructions is given to the land donor. From there, communication is continued over the phone in case any technical attention is required; otherwise, every third month a field worker visits the well and logs a report on it that is computerized.

Government Interaction:

Over the last decade, government involvement in providing arsenic-safe water has been very poor. In some areas, government pipelines to supply water were constructed about five years after the dugwells were installed. In many areas, the pipeline that has been laid out does not supply water even after four years after construction, prompting the villagers request bi-tech wells from us. We have seen many pipelines are broken and in fact this year many ex-dugwell communities are requesting to repair and re-instate or reconstruct a bi-tech well. In the areas where we are working, there has been no news of pipeline construction in the near future. Local panchayet do install 500-foot deep tubewells but no plan of installation is available in the panchayet office. There are recent reports of many deep tubewells, as in Rajapur and Mogra of Baduria and Deganga Blocks, not being used after high concentration of arsenic was detected.

Ancillary activities:

There are a few existing additional activities and we are planning to introduce some next year:
1. Arsenic tests are done in the field office using imported field kits. (details in the 2012 newsletter).
2. We are in the planning stages of introducing blood pressure measurements with easy to use sphygmomanometers and sugar level measurements using urine dip sticks for the beneficiary communities to make people more health conscious and as an added incentive to encourage and motivate other villagers to use water from the bi-tech wells.
3. The field staff are engaged in training the communities to maintain their source of safe water and make the program sustainable.
4. Introduction of low-tech-home-made odor and iron removal filter will be demonstrated so that the user families can develop them with their own cost.
5. They will also start to train users to send text messages to the PWX site so that field workers need only visit the site on demand and inspect it just once a year.
6. Capacity building is a part of this program. We may need to hire a person on a contract basis to upload pictures and upload reports on the Project Well and PWX websites.

Other Issues:

The religious issue still persists in two communities. These particular communities do not want to use the well water after they came to know that the funders are from USA and Christians. In this case the field workers of the same religious background met with the users. According to the report from the field on July 31st 2013 communities of PW209 and PW237 and one community of Swarupnagar have restarted using water from their well.

Purchasing two motorized bike, one for male and one for a female field assistant helped with visiting the communities more often.

Maintenance Revenue:

The users will be required to purchase Theoline, the chlorine disinfectant, and also repair minor wear-and-tear. Field workers will visit the wells every month for one year to get technical and utility reports, after which they will inspect the wells once or twice a year.

Maintenance Cost: $40

Metrics:

1. Site selection:
name of the land donor, address, geocodes, arsenic in existing tubewells, date and findings of pilot test.
2. Construction:
delivery of pipes, rings, sand and other raw materials to different sites;
dates when boring, digging, masonry work are in progress;
3. Completion report:
installation of the sponsor plate; and photos taken and sent to dropbox.
4. Follow up tracking:
number of beneficiaries-monthly for one year initially followed by quarterly as the expected number of beneficiaries use the source;
date of visit, height of water in the dugwell part, amount of theoline supplied,
5. delivery of handover package to ensure sense of ownership after more than 7 families use the source and takes responsibilities of maintenance and connects with the field worker in charge via phone;
6. village and health meetings and projector programs done in the communities - three times a year or more if needed;
7. measurement of arsenic in the well water-once a year;
8. training and demonstration to the to develop low lech household filter to remove any odor and iron in the well water.

Cost: $8,632

construction (10 bi-tech well) - 5569
transport+IT - 443
Service fees - 2172
Maintenance of dugwells, awareness program - 308
Overheads - 140
Total expenses - 8632

Co Funding Amount: $0

not known yet

Community Contribution Amount: $0

Properties on which to construct the dugwell, as well as fresh cooked meals for the team of diggers and field workers on the days of construction. The communities pay for the maintenance of the wells, including chlorination and repair of normal wear-and-tear.

Fund Requested: $8,632

Implementing Organization: Project Well and Aqua Welfare Society

Aqua Welfare Society (AWS) is the partner NGO of Project Well.

Attachments

  • Pdf Annual_R...
  • Pdf Nomencla...
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  • Xlsx PW_budge...
  • 2 participants | show more

    Replication

    GRAVIS Jodhpur of GRAVIS

    Thanks for your proposal, its it very interesting and addresses a major issue. We believe that you would be looking at the technology replication mainly in the government water supplies. Do you have any plans to do that and had any discussions with the relevant authorirties at this stage to get favorable responses afterwards? GRAVIS

    Thanks for your proposal, its it very interesting and addresses a major issue. We believe that you would be looking at the technology replication mainly in the government water supplies. Do you have any plans to do that and had any discussions with the relevant authorirties at this stage to get favorable responses afterwards?

    GRAVIS

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hello GRAVIS, You have asked a very important question. Thank you for it gives me opportunity to discuss here. In 2004, three years after we started construction of modified dugwell, we had held a workshop in Kolkata where the government officials from Arsenic Task Force (ATF), AIIHPH, PHED were present; we have been informing the member...

      Hello GRAVIS,
      You have asked a very important question. Thank you for it gives me opportunity to discuss here.
      In 2004, three years after we started construction of modified dugwell, we had held a workshop in Kolkata where the government officials from Arsenic Task Force (ATF), AIIHPH, PHED were present; we have been informing the members of the ATF of West Bengal and arsenic crisis group about our activities and also in 2007 confronted two members of ATF at a conference in London. Their response is 'we do not support dugwells'. They have never considered the improved design of traditional dugwell nor that the water is treated with 10% chlorine in theoline and most important is that there is no reports of diarrhea from the consumers. And last year we have sent letters to the new Chief Minister, Ms. Mamata Banerjee and the PHED minister, Mr. Subrata Mukherjee informing them about our program. Unfortunately we have never heard from them and the government is still promoting deep tube wells. We have reports of many of the deep tubewells getting contaminated. Currently the Central Government is funding to set up 'International Centre for Drinking Water Quality in Kolkata. (http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=98190).
      This center will be engaged in "identification, mitigation and management with focus on research and development on drinking water quality related problems in India". I wonder how many more years would the government take to set up the water quality management. They have already spent millions of dollars, since 1995, on arsenic removal filters and many other mitigation projects majority of which have failed. Properly managed treated surface water delivered through pipelines like ganges water being supplied to millions, is the method to supply potable water to the rural population. It would take several years to supply water to all of West Bengal hope meanwhile the government will release funds for interim projects so that the villagers are not exposed to arsenic and get sick by the time they get the pipeline water.

      We have plans to approach the Ministry of drinking water and sanitation with the information of the bi-tech well projects with the emphasis on the use of surface water for ingestion and irrigation instead of exploiting and contaminating the third aquifer.

      Thanks again.
      Meera Hira-Smith

  • 2 participants | show more

    Other possible contaminants and governments' responses

    lican liu of Greenovation Hub

    Thanks for your sharing. It is good to learn that you have spent so many years helping local communities access to safe drinking water, especially where residents usually do not realize there is a problem. I just wonder if you find other contaminants in the water when doing the testing. If yes, what is your solution? Since you have done a ...

    Thanks for your sharing. It is good to learn that you have spent so many years helping local communities access to safe drinking water, especially where residents usually do not realize there is a problem. I just wonder if you find other contaminants in the water when doing the testing. If yes, what is your solution? Since you have done a lot of wells there, what is the government's response? do they endorse your effort or they simply ignore it?
    Best Regards,
    lican

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hello Lican, In 2007 we have published an article in which results of 13 heavy metals of two wells were reported. (http://projectwellusa.org/press.php?t=articles). We did not test for any other contaminants like manganese, nitrates/nitrites. Neither did any third party report about it. Now that you have mentioned it we must try to get so...

      Hello Lican,
      In 2007 we have published an article in which results of 13 heavy metals of two wells were reported. (http://projectwellusa.org/press.php?t=articles). We did not test for any other contaminants like manganese, nitrates/nitrites. Neither did any third party report about it. Now that you have mentioned it we must try to get some funds to measure such probable contaminants. However, arsenic causes severe health effects than any of these contaminants.
      The answer to your other question is in the previous response.
      Thank you very much for your concern.
      Meera Hira-Smith

  • 2 participants | show more

    Maintenance ; Number of beneficiaries

    Rosemary O'Mahony of 1001 fontaines

    Thank you for sharing such comprehensive information on your innovative project. It is clear from your Guidelines that you have a very scientific and meticulous approach to the conduct of the projects and the follow up and reporting. I have a few questions related to maintenance and number of beneficiaries. 1. Maintenance What...

    Thank you for sharing such comprehensive information on your innovative project. It is clear from your Guidelines that you have a very scientific and meticulous approach to the conduct of the projects and the follow up and reporting.

    I have a few questions related to maintenance and number of beneficiaries.

    1. Maintenance

    What are the maintenance fees per user ? Are they typically able to cover the costs ? What are the additional costs for the users for the earthen filters ? What are the governance arrangements to ensure that the fees are properly used by the CBG and that all of the required maintenance activities are carried out ? Is that one of the main objectives of the Surveillance Programme ? What have you found to be the most effective incentives/approaches to encourage the community to take on ownership and responsibility ?

    2. Number of beneficiaries

    The project will construct 10 new wells for 400 beneficiaries. What is the capacity of an individual well in terms of the number of beneficiaries that it could support ? What approaches have you found to be most effective in stimulating on-going usage of the water from the well and increasing the number of beneficiaries ?

    Thank you.
    Best wishes.

    Rosemary.

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hello Rosemary, Thank you very much for your questions. I apologize for the delay in response due to my travels. The maintenance fee includes paying for the theoline, the disinfectant, Rs.20 per liter (0.40cents) four times a year. From this year the cost has been increased. And to repair the breakdown of the handpump varies from Rs....

      Hello Rosemary,
      Thank you very much for your questions. I apologize for the delay in response due to my travels.

      The maintenance fee includes paying for the theoline, the disinfectant, Rs.20 per liter (0.40cents) four times a year. From this year the cost has been increased. And to repair the breakdown of the handpump varies from Rs.30 to Rs.100 (0.60 cents to $2.00) per year. In case of any large payment such as for dredging, cleaning and washing of the dugwell ( bi-tech wells does not require dredging) or installing drainage pipe the cost is covered by Project Well under maintenance. Gradually the community will be encouraged to pay for such maintenance works.

      If the water is turbid or there is organic odor the users are advised to purchase matka filters with a 25% subsidy. Cost of a matka filter now is Rs.160/- ($3.20). Currently the communities are demonstrated on how to make their own low-tech-home-made filter if they cannot afford to buy any kind of filter. We have seen this kind of home-made filter in Nadia district that is propagating on its own because it is very cheap and easy to use. It is made of red coarse sand, a thin cloth material and a bucket or earthen pot, whatever available in their kitchen. The red sand is washed and dried in the sun once a week before reuse (there is a youtube video on this on the projectwell.org website).

      The maintenance cost is minimal that in most cases are paid directly to the field staff by the donor of the site. In other words for any payment the community pay directly for the material or labor facilitated by field staff. Our objective is to train the CBGs to maintain their own well and we are getting there. At least 80% of the communities have been responsive. On an average 20% of the CBGs still rely on the field staff. Hence revisits and health meetings are ongoing.
      The main incentive is arsenic free water. Through continuous education in the communities and in local schools: to students and teachers, and clinics: to patients and medical practitioners via audio visual media, movies and power-point presentation, the acceptance level has increased.

      I hope this will suffice your queries and please do feel free to ask more questions if you have any.

      Meera

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Ooops! missed the second part: 2. Based on the distance from water bodies and amount of annual rainfall the standard fixed by us is 30 people or 7 families per dugwell. According to the monthly record of July 2013 out of 202 functional wells there are 19 CBGs with more than 100 users and 27 CBGs with 50-100 users. In case of good q...

      Ooops! missed the second part:

      2. Based on the distance from water bodies and amount of annual rainfall the standard fixed by us is 30 people or 7 families per dugwell. According to the monthly record of July 2013 out of 202 functional wells there are 19 CBGs with more than 100 users and 27 CBGs with 50-100 users.
      In case of good quality of the water, that is absolutely clear water with no turbidity nor organic smell the wells are handed over to the community. In these cases quarterly visits by the assigned field staff has been introduced from mid-2012 while the wells that are used by less than 7 families are being revisited twice a month. Those wells that are far are visited once a month. Every Friday such wells are chosen for Projector Program and health meetings are done on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Each of these CBGs are visited by other field workers too mainly for awareness programs.
      Thanks
      Meera

    • Rosemary O'Mahony of 1001 fontaines

      Dear Meera, Thank you very much for your comprehensive response regarding the maintenance fees, activities and costs, the number of beneficiaries per well and all of the steps that you are taking to ensure that the CBGs take on the responsibilities for maintenance, as well as the steps being taken by the field staff to promote usage. ...

      Dear Meera,

      Thank you very much for your comprehensive response regarding the maintenance fees, activities and costs, the number of beneficiaries per well and all of the steps that you are taking to ensure that the CBGs take on the responsibilities for maintenance, as well as the steps being taken by the field staff to promote usage.

      Best wishes. Rosemary.

  • 3 participants | show more

    People's participation, ownership & toilet facility

    Thomas Palgadhmal of Watershed Organization Trust

    Thanks for your information in the above proposal. The guidelines give the details information about arsenic water issues, impacts, research and developing the appropriate model to address the arsenic contaminated water problem through innovative hi-tech bore well. However, I have some queries as under: 1. You have given the detail cost ...

    Thanks for your information in the above proposal. The guidelines give the details information about arsenic water issues, impacts, research and developing the appropriate model to address the arsenic contaminated water problem through innovative hi-tech bore well. However, I have some queries as under:
    1. You have given the detail cost estimate of the project; however, there is no people’s contribution except the people have to make the provision of food to the workers and team. Since the project is expected to provide the Arsenic safe drinking water to the rural communities, therefore the beneficiaries should contribute towards the project cost, which will ensure the ownership and sustainability of the project.

    2. What is the institutional arrangement for the ownership of the drinking water hi-tech bore well? For example, the landowner donates the land for drilling bore-well. Is there any legal procedure/documentation being done to insure the common use of the bore well? After successful completion of the well, the well is handed over to the land donor and the post follow-up is done mainly with him? Whether the beneficiaries are organized in the form of like "User's Group” to insure the post management and maintenance of the drinking water well?

    3. The main focus of the project is drinking water to community and hygiene education. The awareness and capacity building of the community will be done regarding the health and hygiene issues. However, the facility of the toilet is also main concerns in health and hygiene issues. Therefore, what is the status of the use of toilets in the project area? Whether all the families have the toilet facility? If not, what are the plans to construct the toilet for the beneficiaries?

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hello Thomas, Thank you very much for your valid questions. In face we have discussed the issue on payment by the community for the construction cost earlier. Here are my responses for your specific questions: 1. We work in a region where crystal clear water is in abundant and free. These people are gradually learning that their private...

      Hello Thomas,
      Thank you very much for your valid questions. In face we have discussed the issue on payment by the community for the construction cost earlier. Here are my responses for your specific questions:
      1. We work in a region where crystal clear water is in abundant and free. These people are gradually learning that their privately owned water, close to their kitchen, is contaminated and to get clean water from the government through pipeline, free of charge, will take a long time to be implemented. (In many villages the pipeline water either got shut down or was never delivered 5 years after installation of the pipes). Through our awareness programs they are learning about water borne diseases from untreated water hence they have started purchasing the disinfectant. The continuous visits by the field staff have developed faith and belief that the community respond to because they are tired of the promises that are not kept by the government officials. It took us almost ten years for the communities to pay willingly for the maintenance. We hope someday we will be successful to have them subsidize the construction of bi-tech wells. It is a fact that the quality of water depends on the location of well. Unless we can assure them good quality of water we cannot ask them to pay. May be we will need to include a clause for good water quality when we ask them to pay. In fact if we consider the cost of the land donated by a community member it would perhaps cover the subsidy fee that would give other users the right to ownership. Thank you for your suggestion.

      2. NO there is no legal procedure as such. There is only a letter signed by the land donor about donating the land to construct the bi-tech well that will be used by his immediate neighbors. After the number of user family reached to seven the well is handed over to the community and the handover (plastic) folder is kept with the land donor. In this folder the copies of letters are kept and arsenic reports of each year. This handover package system is introduced from 2013. The field staff assigned visits every month initially to all the families to develop the demography data and later asks family members of the land donor and neighbors who are present during their visits. The houses are usually close to each other. Once a year cross inspection is done when other field staffs are assigned by us to check the data provided by the local field staff. Other than this cross inspection, any third person can visit the site to check on its status report through peerwater.org website.

      3.Through the local panchayet the households that could not afford toilets before now they have their own toilet at a very cheap rate though the system is not proper that is a concrete slab for squatting is placed over a shallow pit. In most cases these pits have earthen ring wells.

      Thanks
      Meera

    • Juergen Puetz of PALMYRA

      Dear Sir, Providing community based safe water through bi-tech wells is a good concept for the rural people. You may approach the land owner to donate a piece of land through Memorandum of Association (MoU) between the owner and the Users which can be legally registered or in stamp paper. After the project implementation period he m...

      Dear Sir,

      Providing community based safe water through bi-tech wells is a good concept for the rural people.

      You may approach the land owner to donate a piece of land through Memorandum of Association (MoU) between the owner and the Users which can be legally registered or in stamp paper. After the project implementation period he may not demand the rights for himself.
      While u handing over the resource to the community, u can invite the local BDO, DRDA to show the activity which can be replicated in the other villages through your institution for which the State Government funds.
      The People can contribute either small contribution otherwise some labor during the implementation of the activity in the village to understand the bi-tech wells erection physical implementation.

      Thanks,
      Dhanam

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hello Dhanam, Thank you very much for this suggestion. I am going to forward this to the board members of the local NGO, Aqua Welfare Society. And we will definitely introduce this practice in the initial-setup protocol. Regards Meera Hira-Smith

      Hello Dhanam,
      Thank you very much for this suggestion. I am going to forward this to the board members of the local NGO, Aqua Welfare Society. And we will definitely introduce this practice in the initial-setup protocol.
      Regards
      Meera Hira-Smith

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Very meticulous, scientific and innovative approach to solving the removal of arsenic from drnking water. There seems to be quite intense follow up in the first year ans the ability of users to provide their feedback. It would be good to have more frequent on-going testing of water quality.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    These bio-tech wells is benefiting to large number of people and this project is also seems to reach to large number of household and provides benefits.

  • Not Reviewed

    by (only shown to members)

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Common Resources Needs to be maintained and monitored for sustainable function and its use. Thanks

    Dhanam

  • Rating: 10

    review by (only shown to members)

    Keep up the good work.

    Need the rest of the peers to learn from your sustainability tracking!

    Hope to work with you on more community contribution and sanitation and overall tracking of wells and indicators (across several wells).

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    Clearly, Project Well knows what they are doing and really understands the challenges of their work area. Sounds like if anyone can have a successful project, they can.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    The Project well has developed the bi-tech well through extensive observation and research in 24 Pargana district to provide safe drinking water to the communities. It is also engaged in the post project period through regular monitoring and evaluation of proper utilization and to ensure sustainability of the project. It is strongly recommended for approval of the project

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    This is a good project that helps people who even did not realize there is a severe problem. I'd like them to secure some funding to do some water quality test.