plan 77Gravity Flow Water Supply for Kerandi Village

Summary

Community-led, gravity flow piped water supply and sanitation system to Kerandi, an un-electrified tribal village in rural Orissa.

Background

The project is guided by five core values: inclusion, social equity, gender equity, sustainability and cost sharing. It uses water and sanitation as the entry point activity to unite the community to take action to improve its well-being and environment. Before the programme begins in any village, the village must come to a consensus that all families, without exception, will participate. This brings the community together across barriers of caste, gender and economic status, which for centuries have excluded large sections of communities from the process of development. The village must also raise a corpus fund of Rs.1,000 ($22) per household with the better-off paying more and the poorer less. The corpus fund is an acid test, demonstrating that the community is committed to the process of development. Interest from the corpus fund is used to meet the social costs of extending the water and sanitation system to new households in the future, ensuring 100% coverage at all times.

Location

Orissa, Gajapati District, India

Attachments

  • Xls 12Dec200...

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Sanitation - Community

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 220

Kerandi is a tribal village in Raygada Block, Gajapati district having 47 households. 60% of the households live below the poverty line. All of the households, compromising of 104 men and 116 women, including 68 children, would have 24-hour piped water supply to their toilet, bathing room and kitchen. .

School Children Getting Water: 17

Eight boys and 9 girls attend the village school. The village school operating in Kerandi will also be provided drinking water, toilet, and bathing room facilities with contribution from the entire community.

People Getting Sanitation: 220

Kerandi is a tribal village in Raygada Block, Gajapati district having 47 households. All of the households, compromising of 104 men and 116 women, would receive a toilet, bathing, and washing block, each having 24 hours of running water.

People Getting Other Benefits: 220

Gram Vikas staff engage with self help groups of women to impress upon them, the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after one uses a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room, women would find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided, in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the need for personal hygiene an ingrained one.

Before construction of the toilets and bathing rooms, young men and women, working as unskilled labourers, are trained in masonry. On completion of the training, they construct the toilets, bathing rooms, overhead water tanks and later on, houses, under the supervision of master masons and technical personnel. These newly trained masons are assured of work for at least one year if they so desire. Some of them go on to become master masons, leading trainings in other project areas, or successfully securing contracts for work in nearby urban centers. Within a year, the income earning capacity of these people increase by at least two to three times. The village fund that accumulates through individual and community contribution as well as interest accruals, can be used at a later stage as collateral to leverage bank loans for community-based income generating enterprises.

Application Type: Program Funding

Start Date: 2007-03-01

Completion Date: 2008-01-01

Technology Used:

Gram Vikas’ solution to bringing a 24 hr, piped water system to an un-electrified village such as Kerandiof is gravity flow water system. A simple and sustainable concept, Gram Vikas’ design of gravity flow water systems has successfully managed to provide continuous water supply to the village. In gravity flow, water from a spring or a well on a higher altitude than the village flows to the village overhead water tank, using the principles of gravity from where it is again distributed through pipes to all families round the clock. Gram Vikas is innovating the current gravity flow design to minimize costs.

Phases:

The project will be completed in one phase.

Community Organization:

A village comes to a consensus such that all families of the community will participate in the programme after a process of dialogue and negotiations between Gram Vikas and the community that may take a few months to a few years. Once the community has agreed to undertake MANTRA, they plan how to form the corpus fund of Rs.1000 per household where the better-off pay more and the poorer less. Once the corpus is collected, the community together with Gram Vikas plans the construction of the toilets and bathrooms and also creates a plan for operations and maintenance (O&M) by identifying common resources such as horticulture plantations, forests or ponds for pisciculture that can be developed to meet all or part of the O&M costs once the system is commissioned.The community drives the implementation of the programme. The community makes the bricks and collects all the local materials necessary for construction like sand and rubble for foundations. Villagers construct the toilets and bathrooms led by trained masons. From each village, youth, both men and women, are trained in masonry during the preparatory phase of the programme. The landless, typically the poorest of the poor, are given priority. The masons are assured work for at least one year and a survey conducted by Gram Vikas found that masons trained under Gram Vikas are able to command significantly higher wages as skilled workers than they could as unskilled labour and also work more days of the year. The community builds the overhead water tank and lays the network of pipes. One or two village youth are trained as pump operators and to make repairs to the system that may be needed. This general body elects a Village Executive Committee (VEC), with 50% of the positions reserved for women, which is registered under Societies Registration Act, 1860. The VEC takes over responsibility for the project incrementally. Once the system is commissioned, the VEC ensures O&M systems are functioning and hygiene behaviors are improved, e.g. the VEC administers a system of fines for open defecation anywhere near the village or unclean toilets.

Government Interaction:

Ancillary activities:

Other Issues:

Women and children are the greatest beneficiaries of this programme - women benefiting from being spared the drudgery of fetching water for household uses and children, escaping the clutches of water-borne diseases, which result in widespread morbidity and mortality.

Access to sanitation is not only a matter of hygiene, it is a statement in dignity - it restores to the rural folk, especially women, their self-respect. Moreover, it is well understood that given the widespread morbidity and mortality in rural areas due to water-borne diseases caused by faecal contamination of water, safe water can never be assured to a habitation in the absence of mechanisms for hygienic disposal of human waste – meaning proper sanitation

Maintenance Revenue:

Maintenance required for gravity flow water systems is minimal. Maintenance could be needed for pipe joints. The cost of maintenance will be met by the village maintenance fund formed from community-led livelihood activities, e.g. income from pisciculture and horticulture.

Maintenance Cost: $50

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $22,911

Refer to uploaded file.

Co Funding Amount: $7,931

Funds raised by Gram Vikas from government programs and other funding agencies

Community Contribution Amount: $4,406

Labour and raw materials

Fund Requested: $7,579

Implementing Organization:

Attachments

  • Xls 12Dec200...
  • 2 participants | show more

    looks interesting

    Ned Breslin of Water for People

    The project looks interesting. I would say the same thing about sanitation I said on another proposal - many projects train masons and offer them work/opportunities for a defined period of time (1 year in this project). But what will happen afterwards - what happens when the community grows and people want latrines and there is no subsid...

    The project looks interesting. I would say the same thing about sanitation I said on another proposal - many projects train masons and offer them work/opportunities for a defined period of time (1 year in this project). But what will happen afterwards - what happens when the community grows and people want latrines and there is no subsidy offered? There are tonnes of examples of this approach failing to provide meaningful services over time so what is different here that will make us see that sanitation will continue after the project is completed?

    Thanks

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      Your comment is wonderful since it highlights the core community mobilizing aspect of our approach: the community corpus fund. Before the project construction can begin, the community is required to raise a corpus fund that is equivalent to Rs. 1000/household. Those who can afford more, contribute more in order to balance those who ca...

      Your comment is wonderful since it highlights the core community mobilizing aspect of our approach: the community corpus fund.

      Before the project construction can begin, the community is required to raise a corpus fund that is equivalent to Rs. 1000/household. Those who can afford more, contribute more in order to balance those who cannot contribute the full Rs. 1000. Gram Vikas requires a corpus due to the reasons you mention in your questions. The primary function of the corpus fund is to ensure that 100% of the community has sanitation and water facilities even in the future, after Gram Vikas has exited. The interest accrued from the corpus fund is used to provide the subsidy for new households. (The process of creating the corpus also creates a transformation towards social equity that is initiated by the community itself.)

  • 2 participants | show more

    convincing the villagers, previous source of drinking water, water quality of the spring located on the hill

    Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

    Very neat project. But I am confused by the estimated starting and ending date. Does this means that the project is already running? It seems prior to introducing the project a lot of work to develop it was involved. I see that the area is tribal and 60% fall in the BPL category. (1) How was it possible to convince most household to...

    Very neat project. But I am confused by the estimated starting and ending date. Does this means that the project is already running?

    It seems prior to introducing the project a lot of work to develop it was involved. I see that the area is tribal and 60% fall in the BPL category. (1) How was it possible to convince most household to pay Rs.1000/- for the water and sanitation just from practice of pisciculture and horticulture?
    (2) Do they have good education system or is it just through awareness programs at community gathering? Community feeling amongst same clan is seen to be more than inter-clan or inter-race. It is really kind of those who can afford more, contribute more in order to balance those who cannot contribute the full amount. In the areas where we work even those who are educated and can pay for themselves wouldn’t do easily but the scenario is different because they have alternate water source nearby though it is tainted with arsenic that is invisible in water and nobody in the family shows any signs of skin lesions or any kind of cancer. It is hard to convince them to pay to arsenic-safe water.
    (3) Until now what was the source of drinking water of this area?
    (4) Just matter of interest, what is the source of water in the adjacent villages?
    The O&M of pipeline is not too expensive depending on the area covered as long as they are maintained well, on a regular basis. Spring water usually does not contain any carcinogens but it would be advisable to check it before implementing the project.
    (5) Can anybody get the geocodes of the spring and the site where the overhead water tank will be located in the village? It would be great to be able to see the village on the earth google. It would be also good to develop some sort of village level tracking system so that five years from now one can assess the changes of the project. In many areas projects covering larger population fail due to misunderstanding amongst the beneficiaries. As long as there is a strong society to oversee the project and in this case the village executive committee, VEC, is formed and hoping that there should not be much problem even in the long run.

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      Yes, IT is difficult at the outset to convince poor tribal communities to put an amount of Rs. 1000 as the corpus. But the ways of mobilising the corpus by the community is diverse and varied. They gather all the material available locally for construction work like stones, sand, rubble etc , put in the unskilled labour required for the co...

      Yes, IT is difficult at the outset to convince poor tribal communities to put an amount of Rs. 1000 as the corpus. But the ways of mobilising the corpus by the community is diverse and varied. They gather all the material available locally for construction work like stones, sand, rubble etc , put in the unskilled labour required for the construction, many household give a monthly donation of a fixed amount towards the corpus and in the process when the construction is going on, the corpus gets collected, etc. We have experience of this having worked in varied contexts, large, multi caste villages, small tribal villages, bi lingual villages etc, but the condition (of Rs. 1000 as corpus) stands the same for all villages.

      Literacy rates in Orissa is belwo 50% and lesser for women and much lesser for tribals people. However the social structure in villages and the leadership play a crucial role in mobilising the whole community and sharing the burden of the poor households. We also convince people that if 100% households are not covered then sanitation is not possible and water for all i.e rich or poor will be contaminated . Therefore it is in the interest of the rich to see that the poor are also able to participate and take up the programme. This creates a "win-win" situation for all and that works.

      people depended on the open well or a hand pump for their drinking water.

      We do a chemical testing of water from any source, open well, dug well, spring etc to ascertain the content of CL, Flouride, Nitrate, Coliform , Iron Arsenic etc. After the testing , if the water is fit for drinking then only we finalise that as the water source.

      We have a GPS but we donot use GIS extensivley. Shall surely take the geocodes and upload it. We are trying to work on a longterm tracking system, if you have anyone who can help us it would be great!!

  • 2 participants | show more

    Water source + sanitation

    Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

    Please could you clarify if the water spring/source has been already located? A spring is ideal over other rain-fed or river-fed sources, but the source is not clear to me. Is the geography hilly? Can ecosan toilets be introduced? The project looks very holistic and well thought out.

    Please could you clarify if the water spring/source has been already located?
    A spring is ideal over other rain-fed or river-fed sources, but the source is not clear to me.

    Is the geography hilly?

    Can ecosan toilets be introduced?

    The project looks very holistic and well thought out.

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      The water source is a spring located at the top of a hill. A well is built to capture the spring water and route it down to the community. The project includes reinforcing the natural watershed to further re-charge the spring. Ecosan toilets have proved to be socially unacceptable in samples of the communities we work with. However...

      The water source is a spring located at the top of a hill. A well is built to capture the spring water and route it down to the community. The project includes reinforcing the natural watershed to further re-charge the spring.

      Ecosan toilets have proved to be socially unacceptable in samples of the communities we work with. However, we could consider encouraging the idea further to more communities who would understand the advantages of ecosan designs, despite their misalignment with local hygene culture.

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      We discussed the ecosan toilets this week within our team. Some points that were highlighted: -Our communities do not use toilets for defecating without water. -The toilet design we use does separate solid and liquid waste via soak pits. We are maximizing the use of waste water by planting of bannana, papayya, and kitchen gardens n...

      We discussed the ecosan toilets this week within our team. Some points that were highlighted:

      -Our communities do not use toilets for defecating without water.
      -The toilet design we use does separate solid and liquid waste via soak pits. We are maximizing the use of waste water by planting of bannana, papayya, and kitchen gardens near the soak pits. With this method of utilizing waste water, in most cases we have not had to empty soak pits even after 10 years.

      Within the realm of a toilet+water design, if you have further ideas, we would appreciate other ideas to maximize the use of liquid and solid waste.

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    Very good project. It is advisable to set up a tracking program that may be just an annual inspection by the implementor because sometimes a minor mismanagement in the community or a minor repair of the system may lead to close down of the system. A stitch in time saves nine. Pictures of the project area strengthens the proposal that are missing in the current proposal.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    This looks like a sound project. The only thing I would suggest is to attempt a working partnership with the local government.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Looks a very good project, with a lot of dynamics of community is project definition and project excecution

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Good project and well setup for success.

    The discussion on the other projects in Vietnam and Nicaragua should help in figuring out how to introduce composting (ecosan) toilets.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Looks good. Good luck.

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    - The project is unique as it is linked with the existing government programmes and addresses to the felt need as well as the root causes of the health and hygiene issues by building local institutions.
    - The project is based on the most important core values such as social, equity, gender equity, cost sharing building of local institutions, transformation in people’s behavioral change and sustainability.
    - It is highly appreciated that a special inbuilt provision has been developed for the recurring expenses and maintenance through identifying common resources with a view to generate income to meet the O&M costs.

Name Status Completion Date Amount Assigned
Gravity Flow Water Supply for Kerandi Village Complete - Successful Jan 2008 $1,000
Gravity Flow Water Supply System for S.Antarasingh Village,Gajapati district, Orissa. Complete - Successful Jul 2009 $3,587