In the MANTRA programme, every household in the village constructs for itself a toilet and bathing room, with a 24-hour piped water supply to both the toilet and bathing room as well as to the kitchen of the house.

Narrative

- Formation of the general body of all adult men and women:

In all villages, a village society was formed, with the elected representatives to the Executive Committee as members, which is registered as a legal body. This involved a series of interactions and discussions with village leaders, groups and the entire village community in all villages. The general body of each village constitutes the Palli Sabha and is the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj system in Orissa. The general body of every village elected a representative committee, with equal number of men and women, headed by the President, Secretary and Treasurer. In 25 of the 29 villages, the legal registration of the village bodies has been completed and in the remaining 4 villages, registration is under process.

During the 3-5 years that Gram Vikas will remain in these villages after completion of the entry point activity of water and sanitation, communities will learn how to deal with conflicts and act as pressure groups against vested interests within their village and outside. Villagers will learn the procedures for maintaining public accounts and for organising the general body meetings and elections.

- Emphasis on personal hygiene:

Gram Vikas staff have and continue to engage with women to impress upon them the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after using a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room, women will find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided, in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the good personal hygiene habit an ingrained one.

    Chitra Chaudhuri ( Gram Vikas ) Over 2 Years after completion 2 Jan, 2010

    April 2007 Progress Report

    Status: In-progress

    Operating Status:

    The main activities undertaken in the reporting period (April 2006 to March 2007) include:

    •Selection of beneficiaries for MANTRA:
    29 villages, covering a total of 2134 households have been identified for this project. These villages were chosen after the entire village (without even a single exception) agreed to be a part of the programme. The villages also had to make a clear financial commitment of raising a corpus fund, with an average of Rs. 1000 being raised from every household.

    Among the households covered, 62% belong to the BPL category. Further, 9% of the families are dalits and 35% are adivasis. The demographic details are in Annexure 2.

    •Formation of general body of all adult men and women:
    In all villages, a village society was formed, with the elected representatives to the Executive Committee as members, which is registered as a legal body. This involved a series of interactions and discussions with village leaders, groups and the entire village community in all villages. The general body of each village constitutes the Palli Sabha and is the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj system in Orissa. The general body of every village elected a representative committee, with equal number of men and women, headed by the President, Secretary and Treasurer. The proceedings for the legal registration of the village bodies have been started and in 11 villages, the society has been registered. The applications for registration of committees in other villages are pending at the block level.

    During the 3-5 years that Gram Vikas will remain in these villages after completion of the entry point activity of water and sanitation, communities learn how to deal with conflicts and act as pressure groups against vested interests within their village and outside. Villagers learn the ropes of maintaining public accounts, organizing the general body meetings and elections.

    •Formation of women’s general body and savings groups:
    To elicit greater participation from women, a separate general body for women is constituted in all villages. Here, women opened up and began to participate in the discussions pertaining to various issues of general concern. Considerable efforts go into the accompaniment of women general body members and executive committee members, before they could sit as equals with men at the same meetings and to express their opinions without any fear or inhibition.

    Groups of women are also encouraged to start small savings. These fora are used to discuss issues of common concern, and gradually draw women to participate actively in community level decision-making.

    Over time, women have taken over the responsibilities of maintenance and monitoring of water supply and toilets, in resolving conflicts, organising mass protests, enforcing programme codes in the village and in advocacy beyond the village. They are also confident and firm in their interaction with government officials, banks and other outsiders.

    In 16 villages, women’s savings and credit groups have been formed. These groups are facilitated by Gram Vikas at present and on completion of six months of regular transaction, will be linked to banks.

    •Generation of maintenance funds:
    Surveys were carried out in all villages to identify appropriate sources of community income. These include ponds, community forests and common agricultural land. Steps are being taken to develop these resources so that there are regular incomes to the community fund. This fund will be used to manage common assets and undertake other development activities. Villagers are being encouraged to bid for public works contracts in their village awarded through Panchayats and Blocks.

    •Emphasis on personal hygiene:
    Gram Vikas staff engage with women to impress upon them, the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after one uses a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room, women would find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided, in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the need for personal hygiene an ingrained one.

    •Status of construction:
    Nearly 100% of the households covered have completed all the brickwork of their respective toilets and bathing rooms.

    Arrangements are being made to secure funds under either Swajaldhara or RSVY (Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana), which are government schemes for establishment of the water supply systems. Either of these schemes would be availed to fund about 70% of the costs of establishing the water supply system.

    In nine villages, funds have been sanctioned for establishing water supply systems.

    •100% families have agreed to be a part of the programme, with all its precondition and responsibilities in 29 villages, covering 2134 households

    •In all villages, village general bodies have been formed and Executive Committees have been elected.

    •In 11 villages, the registration of village societies has been completed. In all other villages, the application for registration has been submitted with the block level officials

    •Corpus collection has been completed for all households

    •80% of all works of construction of toilets and bathing rooms are complete

    Chitra Chaudhuri ( Gram Vikas ) 8 Months after completion 5 Apr, 2008

    April 2008 Progress Report

    Status: In-progress

    Operating Status:

    This report follows on from the previous report for the period 2006-2007. 29 villages, covering a total of 2000 households, had been identified for this project. These villages were chosen after the entire village (without even a single exception) agreed to be a part of the programme. The villages also had to make the clear financial commitment of raising a corpus fund, with an average of Rs. 1000 being raised from every household.

    Among the households covered, 59.45% belong to the BPL category (living below the poverty line). Further, 9.4% of the families are dalits and 39.55% are adivasis.

    The main activities undertaken in this reporting period (April 2007 to March 2008) include:

    Formation of the general body of all adult men and women:

    In all villages, a village society was formed, with the elected representatives to the Executive Committee as members, which is registered as a legal body. This involved a series of interactions and discussions with village leaders, groups and the entire village community in all villages. The general body of each village constitutes the Palli Sabha and is the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj system in Orissa. The general body of every village elected a representative committee, with equal number of men and women, headed by the President, Secretary and Treasurer. In 25 of the 29 villages, the legal registration of the village bodies has been completed and in the remaining 4 villages, registration is under process.

    During the 3-5 years that Gram Vikas will remain in these villages after completion of the entry point activity of water and sanitation, communities will learn how to deal with conflicts and act as pressure groups against vested interests within their village and outside. Villagers will learn the procedures for maintaining public accounts and for organising the general body meetings and elections.

    Emphasis on personal hygiene:

    Gram Vikas staff have and continue to engage with women to impress upon them the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after using a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room, women will find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided, in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the good personal hygiene habit an ingrained one.

    Formation of women’s general body and savings groups:

    To elicit greater participation from women, a separate general body for women was constituted in all the villages. Here, the women opened up and began to participate in discussions pertaining to various issues of general concern. Considerable efforts went into the support of the women members of the general body and executive committee, before they could sit as equals with men at the same meetings, participating actively in community-level decision making and expressing their opinions without fear or inhibition.

    Now the women are taking a more proactive role in village affairs and community decisions. They have already made themselves responsible for monitoring village cleanliness and ensuring that villagers adhere to the standards expected of them.

    If the experience of other villages is replicated, it is expected that in time women will take over responsibility for the maintenance and monitoring of the water supply and toilets, for resolving conflicts, organising mass protests, enforcing programme codes in the village and for advocacy beyond the village. They will become confident and firm in their interaction with government officials, banks and other outsiders.

    A total of 696 women’s savings and credit groups were formed in 16 villages and were facilitated by Gram Vikas. Following a minimum of six months of regular transactions, 52 links were forged with banks.

    Generation of maintenance funds:

    Surveys were carried out in all villages to identify appropriate sources of community income. These include ponds, community forests and common agricultural land. Steps are being taken to develop these resources so that there are regular incomes to the community fund. This fund will be used to manage common assets and undertake other development activities. Villagers are being encouraged to bid for public works contracts in their village awarded through Panchayats and Blocks.

    To date, householders have not yet contributed to the maintenance funds, as with a few exceptions they do not have a functioning system to maintain. The level of contribution has been set at Rs 10 per family per month, payable in two 6-monthly instalments at harvest time.

    Construction of a toilet and bathing room for every single household in the 29 villages has been completed.

    Arrangements were being made to secure funds under either RSVY (Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana) or Swajaaldhara, Government schemes for the establishment of water supply systems. Either of these schemes would be accessed to fund about 70% of the cost of establishing the water supply system. The Swajaldhara scheme has since been modified and is now called Jaladhara. Instead of contributing 10% of costs as in Swajaldhara, Jaladhara is completely free; however, availability of funds seems to be extremely limited.

    Sadly, progress in this area has been frustratingly slow:

    Water supply systems have been established in 5 villages (3 using gravity flow).
    In two villages the water tank has been completed but not yet connected to an electricity supply for pumping.
    A water tank is under construction in one village, the bore well having been completed.
    21 villages have applied for Government funding

    Gram Vikas will wait a little longer in the hope of obtaining Government funding for the water supply but if this approach fails, Gram Vikas will utilise recently accessed funds from other sources and its own reserves.

    • Thumb_activities_and_desired_outcomes_part_ii
    • Thumb_activities_and_desired_outcomes
  • Impact Assessment (M&E) Phase Project completed on 31 Jul, 2007 Implementation Phase
    Chitra Chaudhuri ( Gram Vikas ) About 1 Year after start 1 Oct, 2006

    Oct. 2006 Progress Report

    Status: In-progress

    Operating Status:

    The collaboration between Gram Vikas and BHP Billiton was finalised to provide sanitation and water supply systems to 2000 households. The duration of the project is from 1st April 2006 till 31st March 2007.

    The main activities undertaken in the reporting period (April 2006 to Sep 2006) include:

    Selection of beneficiaries for MANTRA-
    27 villages, covering a total of 2011 households have been identified for this project. These villages have been chosen after the entire village (without even a single exception) agreed to be a part of the programme. The villages also had to make a clear financial commitment of raising a corpus fund, with an average of Rs. 1000 being raised from every household.

    The programme involves each and every family in the village without exception. 100% consensus ensures that even the poorest and most marginalized benefits from the same level of service, and has an equal say in deciding how the project should be implemented. This minimizes the chances of the systems established falling into disrepair or disuse. Among the households covered, 68% belong to the BPL category. Further, 10% of the families are dalits and 41% are adivasis.

    Formation of general body of all adult men and women:
    In all villages, a village society was formed, with the elected representatives to the Executive Committee as members, which is registered as a legal body. This involved a series of interactions and discussions with village leaders, groups and the entire village community in all villages. The general body of each village constitutes the Palli Sabha and is the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj system in Orissa. The general body of every village elected a representative committee, with equal number of men and women, headed by the President, Secretary and Treasurer. The proceedings for the legal registration of the village bodies have been started and in 11 villages, the society has been registered.

    The legally recognised status will enable communities to leverage development resources in a more effective manner. In these villages, the village committee represents the interest of all sections, and attempts are made to develop necessary capacities so that they are able to manage conflicts. The village committees have proportionate representation of all caste and class groups in the community. Gram Vikas stays three to five years to build capacities of women and the excluded, so that they can participate on an equal level. For the first time the poorest woman, the widow, or the dalit feels that s/he has a voice, which will be heard and which matters.

    During the 3-5 years that Gram Vikas will remain in these villages after completion of the entry point activity of water and sanitation, communities learn how to deal with conflicts and act as pressure groups against vested interests within their village and outside. Villagers learn the ropes of maintaining public accounts, organizing the general body meetings and elections.

    Formation of women’s general body and savings groups:
    To elicit greater participation from women, a separate general body for women is constituted in all villages. Here, women opened up and began to participate in the discussions pertaining to various issues of general concern. Considerable efforts go into the accompaniment of women general body members and executive committee members, before they could sit as equals with men at the same meetings and to express their opinions without any fear or inhibition.

    Groups of women are also encouraged to start small savings. These fora are used to discuss issues of common concern, and gradually draw women to participate actively in community level decision-making.

    Over time, women have taken over the responsibilities of maintenance and monitoring of water supply and toilets, in resolving conflicts, organising mass protests, enforcing programme codes in the village and in advocacy beyond the village. They are also confident and firm in their interaction with government officials, banks and other outsiders. In 16 villages, women’s savings and credit groups have been formed. These groups are facilitated by Gram Vikas at present and on completion of six months of regular transaction, will be linked to banks.

    Raising resources for the sustainability of the water supply and sanitation systems:

    Plans and estimates for water supply and sanitation have been made separately for all the villages, in consultation with the respective general bodies. A contract was drawn for each village with detailed plan for resources to be raised by the local community (corpus fund of Rs.1,000 per family and materials for construction), resources to be accessed from the government (under Swajaldhara rural drinking water supply scheme, local area development funds of elected representatives, and other government grants schemes), and resources to be contributed by Gram Vikas (sanitation subsidy, technical and supervision support) and the associated time-frame.

    Formation of sub-committees:
    Sub-committees have been formed in each village for monitoring construction, education and health in each village. The Education sub-committee ensures that the government primary school, within or near the village functions regularly.

    Parents are motivated to send their children to school. Periodic Parent-Teacher interactions are also organized by the Education Committees. The Health sub-committee liaises with the local Anganwadi worker and Auxiliary Nurse and Midwife to ensure that there is proper antenatal and post natal care and that all eligible children are immunized on schedule. The construction sub-committee to ensure that construction materials are in place and that construction progress of all families is within the time frame.

    Generation of maintenance funds:
    Surveys were carried out in all villages to identify appropriate sources of community income. These include ponds, community forests and common agricultural land. Steps are being taken to develop these resources so that there are regular incomes to the community fund. This fund will be used to manage common assets and undertake other development activities. Villagers are being encouraged to bid for public works contracts in their village awarded through Panchayats and Blocks.

    Emphasis on personal hygiene:
    Gram Vikas staff engage with women to impress upon them, the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after one uses a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room, women would find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided, in schools, about the importance of handwashing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the need for personal hygiene an ingrained one.

    Status of construction:
    Nearly 50% of the households covered have completed all the brickwork of their respective toilets and bathing rooms.

    Arrangements are being made to secure funds under either Swajaldhara or RSVY (Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana), which are government schemes for establishment of the water supply systems. Either of these schemes would be availed to fund about 70% of the costs of establishing the water supply system.

    • Pdf Half-Yea...
  • Implementation Phase Project started on 1 Oct, 2005 Preparation Phase

In the MANTRA programme, every household in the village constructs for itself a toilet and bathing room, with a 24-hour piped water supply to both the toilet and bathing room as well as to the kitchen of the house.

Narrative

- Formation of the general body of all adult men and women:

In all villages, a village society was formed, with the elected representatives to the Executive Committee as members, which is registered as a legal body. This involved a series of interactions and discussions with village leaders, groups and the entire village community in all villages. The general body of each village constitutes the Palli Sabha and is the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj system in Orissa. The general body of every village elected a representative committee, with equal number of men and women, headed by the President, Secretary and Treasurer. In 25 of the 29 villages, the legal registration of the village bodies has been completed and in the remaining 4 villages, registration is under process.

During the 3-5 years that Gram Vikas will remain in these villages after completion of the entry point activity of water and sanitation, communities will learn how to deal with conflicts and act as pressure groups against vested interests within their village and outside. Villagers will learn the procedures for maintaining public accounts and for organising the general body meetings and elections.

- Emphasis on personal hygiene:

Gram Vikas staff have and continue to engage with women to impress upon them the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after using a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room, women will find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided, in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the good personal hygiene habit an ingrained one.

Sustainability

Creating and measuring long-term impact

Surveys were carried out in all villages to identify appropriate sources of community income. These include ponds, community forests and common agricultural land. Steps are being taken to develop these resources so that there are regular incomes to the community fund. This fund will be used to manage common assets and undertake other development activities. Villagers are being encouraged to bid for public works contracts in their village awarded through Panchayats and Blocks.

To date, householders have not yet contributed to the maintenance funds, as with a few exceptions they do not have a functioning system to maintain. The level of contribution has been set at Rs 10 per family per month, payable in two 6-monthly instalments at harvest time.

Other Issues

Unusual and unexpected issues faced during project execution

- Formation of women’s general body and savings groups:

To elicit greater participation from women, a separate general body for women was constituted in all the villages. Here, the women opened up and began to participate in discussions pertaining to various issues of general concern. Considerable efforts went into the support of the women members of the general body and executive committee, before they could sit as equals with men at the same meetings, participating actively in community-level decision making and expressing their opinions without fear or inhibition.

Now the women are taking a more proactive role in village affairs and community decisions. They have already made themselves responsible for monitoring village cleanliness and ensuring that villagers adhere to the standards expected of them.

If the experience of other villages is replicated, it is expected that in time women will take over responsibility for the maintenance and monitoring of the water supply and toilets, for resolving conflicts, organising mass protests, enforcing programme codes in the village and for advocacy beyond the village. They will become confident and firm in their interaction with government officials, banks and other outsiders.

A total of 696 women’s savings and credit groups were formed in 16 villages and were facilitated by Gram Vikas. Following a minimum of six months of regular transactions, 52 links were forged with banks.

Learnings

Knowledge of project and process for sharing

Construction of a toilet and bathing room for every single household in the 29 villages has been completed. A breakdown by village is given in Appendix B.

Arrangements were being made to secure funds under either RSVY (Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojana) or Swajaaldhara, Government schemes for the establishment of water supply systems. Either of these schemes would be accessed to fund about 70% of the cost of establishing the water supply system. The Swajaldhara scheme has since been modified and is now called Jaladhara. Instead of contributing 10% of costs as in Swajaldhara, Jaladhara is completely free; however, availability of funds seems to be extremely limited.

Sadly, progress in this area has been frustratingly slow:

- Water supply systems have been established in 5 villages (3 using gravity flow).
- In two villages the water tank has been completed but not yet connected to an electricity supply for pumping.
- A water tank is under construction in one village, the bore well having been completed.
- 21 villages have applied for Government funding

Impact

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 10151

People Getting Sanitation: 10151

Funding

Funded:
$215,713
Final Cost:
$215,713
$215,713:
BHP Billiton

Plan/Proposal