plan 251Community-led, gravity flow piped water supply and sanitation system to 4 un-electrified rural communities in Orissa

Summary

The project will facilitate the establishment of gravity-flow water-supply systems in four un-electrified villages in Orissa state: Adivasi Colony, Nedisahi, Talaganda, Tangisahi. A total population of 336 people would have access to 24 hours piped water

Background

Orissa is one of the poorest states in India, with approximately 40% of its population living on less than a dollar a day. In addition, it has the dubious distinction of having the poorest coverage of protected drinking water and sanitation infrastructure in the whole of India. Gram Vikas have found that one of the key reasons for the very high levels of poverty is the high levels of ill-health, the majority of which can be traced directly to very poor quality drinking water, which is heavily polluted with human waste. Easily preventable water-borne diseases cause 80% of ill-health in rural Orissa.

The operational areas of Gram Vikas have a large tribal population and are physically remote with very poor basic services and facilities, rendering them as districts that have low human development indicators.

The communities depend primarily on agriculture and daily wage labour for subsistence. The vicious cycle of poverty and morbidity work together to keep communities in these areas in a perpetual debt cycle, forcing them to lead sub- human lives devoid of dignity, self-respect, and the capacity to demand and negotiate with external forces for their rightful entitlement.

In this context, the water and sanitation project is an entry point and through the process of 100% inclusion, the aim is to harness the inherent collective potential of poor communities to help them to determine the course of their development.

Location

Mohuda, Orissa, India

Attachments

  • Doc Water_Su...
  • Doc Budget.doc
  • Xls Budget.xls

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Community
Secondary Focus: Sanitation - Community

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 336

61 families
107 women
107 children: 63 boys and 44 girls

(Data source: Gram Vikas households surveys)

School Children Getting Water: 107

People Getting Sanitation: 336

61 families
107 women
107 children: 63 boys and 44 girls

(Data source: Gram Vikas households surveys)

People Getting Other Benefits:

In addition to the physical construction of the water supply system that will have a direct impact on reduction of waterborne diseases, a number of other activities will take place, including hygiene and sanitation education.

Gram Vikas staff engage with self- help groups of women to impress upon them the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after one uses a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room and running water, women find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc.

The project will bring added benefits particularly to women and children. Women will be spared the drudgery of fetching water for household uses, as well girl children will be relieved of water-fetching duties, or caring for younger siblings while their mothers collect water, enabling them to attend school.

Before construction of the toilets and bathing rooms, young men and women, working as unskilled labourers, are trained in masonry. On completion of the training, they construct the toilets, bathing rooms, and the overhead water tanks. These newly trained masons are assured of work for a period of time if they so desire, many go on to successfully secure lucrative contracts in nearby urban centers, and within a year, their income earning capacity increases by at least three times.

Application Type: Program Funding

Start Date: 2009-09-01

Completion Date: 2010-02-28

Technology Used:

As the target population is living in un-electrified villages, Gram Vikas’ solution of bringing piped water is a gravity flow water system. A simple and sustainable concept, Gram Vikas’ design of gravity flow water systems has successfully managed to provide a continuous water supply to many villages.

In gravity flow, wherever possible water is tapped from a suitable perennial spring. However, if no suitable spring exists, Gram Vikas have developed a highly innovative solution of establishing a sanitary dug well. A slit is cut down one side of the well and a pipe attached at the bottom. The slit is then blocked back up, and the entire well is lined with stones. Water then percolates into the well, where it is stored, and can then be transported to the village overhead water tank. The spring or well are at a higher altitude than the village, therefore the water is transported through pipes using the principles of gravity from where it is again distributed through pipes to all families around the clock. To ensure the pipes are protected, they are dug deep into the ground.

This system has many advantages, for example, it eliminates the need for expensive to run pumps, and requires very little maintenance, making it an economically viable option for remote, and marginalized communities.

In addition, it has environmental benefits, relying purely on the force of gravity to bring the water to the village, and eliminating the need for pumps, with high carbon emissions.

Phases:

The project will be completed in one phase.

Community Organization:

Gram Vikas’ approach of using water and sanitation activities as an entry point for whole village development is delivered under the MANTRA (Movement and Action Network for the Transformation of Rural Areas) Programme. MANTRA is based on five principles and the core principle is 100% inclusion of all families in a village. No work can start on building the water and sanitation facilities until every family has agreed to take part. This is crucial from a total sanitation point of view, as even if one family continue to practice open defecation, water sources will continue to be polluted. 100% inclusion is also a step towards addressing exclusionary practices prevailing in society –mainly towards dalits, indigenous communities and women.

Other core values include cost sharing, and gender and social equity. Gram Vikas do not believe in the common attitude of “poor people only need poor solutions.” Gram Vikas motivate and enable communities to overcome deeply rooted divisions along lines of caste and gender to come together and achieve high quality solutions, resulting in every household having a toilet, and bathing room, with three taps supplying piped, potable water. Gram Vikas believe that the poor can and will pay for truly beneficial development solutions, however the larger community also have a role in meeting the social cost for families, especially in areas where the government makes no or measly investment in water and sanitation infrastructure.

Before the programme begins in any village, the village must come to a consensus that all families, without exception, will participate. This brings the community together across barriers of caste, gender and economic status, which for centuries have excluded large sections of communities from the process of development. The village must also raise a corpus fund of Rs.1,000 ($22) per household with the better-off paying more and the poorer less. The corpus fund is an acid test, demonstrating that the community is committed to the process of development. Interest from the corpus fund is used to meet the social costs of extending the water and sanitation system to new households in the future, ensuring 100% coverage at all times.

The community drives the implementation of the programme. The community makes the bricks and collects all the local materials necessary and rural youth trained in masonry build the overhead water tank and lays the network of pipes. 1-2 rural youth are trained as pump operators and are taught how to make any necessary repairs to the system.
The management of the project is undertaken by the Village Executive Committee (VEC) comprising of 6 men and 6 women, all of whom are elected. In addition to constructing the water and sanitation infrastructure, Gram Vikas spend time building the capacities of this committee to enable them to gradually take over the entire responsibility for managing the water and sanitation infrastructure after Gram Vikas’ withdrawal from the village.

An advantage of the gravity-flow system is that it generally requires little maintenance, however, there may be maintenance required occasionally for parts such as pipe joints. The cost of any maintenance is met by the village maintenance fund formed from community-led livelihood activities, e.g. income from pisciculture and horticulture.

Government Interaction:

Gram Vikas are an approved project implementing agency for the government’s Swajaldhara water scheme

Ancillary activities:

In addition to the construction of the water supply system a number of other activities will take place: hygiene and sanitation education, training in masonry and capacity building for Village Executive Committee’s members to enable them to take the responsibility for managing the water and sanitation infrastructure.

Gram Vikas staff engage with self- help groups of women to impress upon them the importance of personal hygiene. Small, but instructive messages about using some form of soap (or detergent or ash) to clean the hands after one uses a toilet, bathing regularly and wearing clean clothes are passed on during the regular meetings. Due to the availability of a bathing room and running water, women find it easier to take care of their personal cleanliness and hygiene. In addition, children are repeatedly guided in schools, about the importance of hand-washing, keeping their hair clean, keeping nails short and clean etc.

Before construction of the toilets and bathing rooms, young men and women, working as unskilled labourers, are trained in masonry. On completion of the training, they construct the toilets, bathing rooms, and the overhead water tanks. These newly trained masons are assured of work for a period of time if they so desire, many go on to successfully secure lucrative contracts in nearby urban centers, and within a year, their income earning capacity increases by at least three times.

Other Issues:

Another issue is the disparity in government policy between urban and rural areas, with heavily subsidised water and sanitation infrastructure in urban areas, but in rural areas there are no such subsidies. The rural people are expected to fund their own systems or go without.

In addition, until recently the government’s Swajaldhara scheme had been downsized, reducing the amount of funding available for water supply systems. This has resulted in a large backlog of villages who have completed their sanitation systems, but have been unable to access a water supply. This funding proposal is being submitted to help with this backlog, and enable 4 rural communities who have already built sanitation infrastructure to access a safe piped water supply, and complete their water and sanitation project.

Maintenance Revenue:

Maintenance required for gravity flow water systems is minimal. The cost of maintenance will be met by the village maintenance fund formed from community-led livelihood activities, e.g. income from pisciculture and horticulture, in addition to a monthly contribution by the villagers.

Each village raises a corpus fund of Rs.1,000 ($22) per household with the better-off paying more and the poorer less. Interest from the corpus fund is used to meet the social costs of extending the water and sanitation system to new households in the future, ensuring 100% coverage at all times. In addition having local people trained as masons, ensures the villagers are self-sufficient and able to make any repairs necessary.

Villagers also form a maintenance fund from community-led livelihood activities, and household contribution that will cover any cost required for maintenance of the gravity flow system.

Capacity building activities will also be undertaken with members of the Village Executive Committee. This will enable the committee to take increasing responsibility for the management of the project as Gram Vikas begin to withdraw after completion of the infrastructure being built.

Maintenance Cost:

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $27,020

See Attachment

Co Funding Amount:

Community Contribution

Community Contribution Amount: $5,829

Community contribution consists of providing manual labour; supplying the locally available raw materials such as sand and stones; as well as a financial contribution in the form of the corpus fund.

Fund Requested: $21,191

Implementing Organization:

Attachments

  • Doc Water_Su...
  • Doc Budget.doc
  • Xls Budget.xls
  • 2 participants | show more

    Jenna Saldaña of El Porvenir

    I find this to be a very complete, very impressive application. It addresses what is clearly a need, explains what it will do, and explains the other benefits. It not only addresses the water and education issues, but addresses the cycle of poverty. My only question is about the budget as I was unable to download the attachment without ...

    I find this to be a very complete, very impressive application.

    It addresses what is clearly a need, explains what it will do, and explains the other benefits. It not only addresses the water and education issues, but addresses the cycle of poverty.

    My only question is about the budget as I was unable to download the attachment without a converter that I don't have.

    Jenna Saldana, El Porvenir

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      Dear Jenna, Thank you for your comments. I attached a word doc version of the budget. Let us know if you can download it. Cristina

      Dear Jenna,

      Thank you for your comments.
      I attached a word doc version of the budget. Let us know if you can download it.
      Cristina

  • 2 participants | show more

    Question on Coupling Water and Sanitation

    Sam Moore of Lifewater International

    This is Sam Moore, from Lifewater International, and I also found your application to be well written and informative. Being previously unfamiliar with your organization, I was able to spend some time on your PWX profile, your web page, and look at past projects. I am impressed with your 100% community involvement and coverage approach and...

    This is Sam Moore, from Lifewater International, and I also found your application to be well written and informative. Being previously unfamiliar with your organization, I was able to spend some time on your PWX profile, your web page, and look at past projects. I am impressed with your 100% community involvement and coverage approach and hope that Lifewater can also learn from some of your methods. I have a question about how you couple sanitation with water approaches: My experience (mostly Africa and Latin America) has been that combining water and sanitation programs on the same timetable can be problematic in that sanitation and hygiene typically take longer in terms of building community demand. I have seen projects where the community seems very willing and motivated to build latrines so that they will benefit from the planned water scheme. However, once the water scheme is complete, the latrines quickly fall into disrepair. In fact, many were not built to high standards in the first place. In one of your past project reports, you state that because people in your program area use water for cleaning after defecation, there is a greater need to couple both of the sanitation and water components. Because of the need for water in the latrine, have you seen ‘sustained’ demand for the latrine well beyond the life of the initial project? Is there a risk in having sanitation facilities that require water to be constructed before the water source is in place? How do you mitigate that risk? One last question on this thread: It doesn’t sound like you are using specific Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) methodology, but are having some good success. Has there been any attempt to use CLTS in your program area? Why or why not? I look forward to this dialogue and appreciate your time in responding. Best regards, Sam Moore, Lifewater Intl

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      Dear Sam, In the vast majority of villages, there is always a long-term sustained demand for toilets, which we believe is due to a number of reasons: • The community have to meet some of the construction costs of these facilities through cash contribution, providing labour and collecting locally available materials. As a result there is...

      Dear Sam,

      In the vast majority of villages, there is always a long-term sustained demand for toilets, which we believe is due to a number of reasons:

      • The community have to meet some of the construction costs of these facilities through cash contribution, providing labour and collecting locally available materials. As a result there is a genuine sense of community ownership of these facilities
      • Having a piped water supply to each individual toilet ensures they are practical to use, as water does not have to be carried to the toilet. This is actually the key reason for many established toilets falling into disrepair throughout Orissa. If water still needs to be fetched to use them, it is too much of an additional burden on the women, therefore they soon stop being used. An additional reason for toilets not being used is the low quality of construction, often they don’t even have a shelter, therefore providing no privacy.
      • The facilities built are high quality, making them very practical, as well as generating a genuine sense of pride amongst the community.
      • The community, in particular the women very quickly appreciate the benefits of these facilities. Women can now wash and attend to their personal needs with complete privacy and dignity. Very quickly the incidence of water-borne diseases is reduced, providing great benefits to the entire village.
      • Much emphasis is placed on the importance of behavioural and attitude change towards sanitation and hygiene to ensure long term use and sustainability of these facilities. Hygiene and sanitation education is conducted at both the village level and in schools. Between the mothers and the children, there is often a mutually reinforcing cycle at work, making the need for personal hygiene an ingrained one. In addition, by children learning these practices, and using a toilet they will grow up comfortable with the concept of a toilet, signifying the first step in an evolution of the sanitary expectations in the community.
      • The villagers themselves are empowered to gradually take over the entire management of the project. This includes deciding upon the amount of the monthly maintenance fee that each household has to pay to ensure the upkeep of these facilities, and collecting this fee. The management committee themselves also impose fines on anybody found defecating in the open, or not keeping their toilet clean. The fact this enforcement comes from the villagers, and not an ‘outside body’ adds to the success of it.

      By the time Gram Vikas withdraw from the village, in the vast majority of cases a complete belief in the facilities and change in attitudes towards hygiene and sanitation is underway. In addition, the community themselves are completely equipped to deal with any problems and manage the project, thereby ensuring the long-term sustainability and use of the facilities.

      Where the water supply systems have been constructed as soon as the sanitation facilities are constructed, we have found there to be no risk in terms of their use. Where we have found it difficult to fund water supply systems, particularly after the downgrading of the government’s Swajaldhara scheme, there have been cases of time needing to be spent to re-motivate the community. However, establishing the sanitation systems first is crucial to a successful complete village water and sanitation system. If the water supply systems were in place, it would be far more difficult, and many villages would fail to complete the sanitation system. In addition, Gram Vikas never leave the village while waiting for the water supply system to be constructed, therefore there are always ongoing motivation, training, and livelihood enhancement activities, ensuring the ongoing participation of the village.

      No we do not use specific CLTS methodology. Although this is a good, innovative methodology, because of our non-negotiable requirement of 100% inclusion, the CLTS methodology does not quite fit our needs. We also place a lot of emphasis on using dignity as a motivating factor to achieve 100% inclusion.

  • 2 participants | show more

    The previous remark by Sam Moore

    Gilles Corcos of Agua Para la Vida (APLV)

    From Gilles Corcos, Agua para La Vida. In our experience getting access to sound and sufficient water has been more motivating for the communities that have worked with us than getting latrines built, (with a few exceptions). For this reason we normally start with the latrine construction. I agree with Sam Moore on the point that for a co...

    From Gilles Corcos, Agua para La Vida.
    In our experience getting access to sound and sufficient water has been more motivating for the communities that have worked with us than getting latrines built, (with a few exceptions). For this reason we normally start with the latrine construction.
    I agree with Sam Moore on the point that for a community to adopt hygenic habits (as opposed to knowing what those are) takes much more time than for it to build a water system. And Agua para La Vida takes this into account so that our continue to visit the individual homes and the schools of the communities that have constructed water systems with our help for years after the contruction. This is of course a problem for our staff since as we build more and more projects the load on the promotoras increases.

    On the use of latrines once they are built, we don't have precise statistics about what % of the families keep using them but our continuing contacts with the populations point to the continued use of the latrines by almost every one.

    • Jenna Saldaña of El Porvenir

      Ideally, we start with sanitation before water as to keep the water clean you need a whole community using latrines. The education piece is crucial for the community to understand why they need to use latrines. If you build a well but not latrines, you'll still have health issues community-wide. That's what we explain with the community...

      Ideally, we start with sanitation before water as to keep the water clean you need a whole community using latrines. The education piece is crucial for the community to understand why they need to use latrines. If you build a well but not latrines, you'll still have health issues community-wide. That's what we explain with the community education which is ongoing. It's at the beginning of project, during the project, and continues after the project.

      Jenna, El Porvenir

  • 2 participants | show more

    Details on the gravity flow system used.

    Gilles Corcos of Agua Para la Vida (APLV)

    I have a few questions about the techniques used for this gravity system. a) Water source is a large well. Right? Is it completely covered by a roof? b) how is the water brought up from the well to the tank? Hand pump, mechanical pump? c) Is the storage tank near the well a 3cubic meter tank? d) does each village have its own holding tank...

    I have a few questions about the techniques used for this gravity system.
    a) Water source is a large well. Right? Is it completely covered by a roof?
    b) how is the water brought up from the well to the tank? Hand pump, mechanical pump?
    c) Is the storage tank near the well a 3cubic meter tank?
    d) does each village have its own holding tank or are the water stands directly connected to the head tank through a distribution network?
    e) are the 4 villages at the same elevation? If not how is the distribution amongst the 4 villages controlled? Within one village how is the consumption controlled? Is there a central distribution location? or multiple water stands?
    5) what is the design allocation of water per family?
    6) Is the well water uncontaminated or does it require treatment ?

    Many thanks for the answer,
    GC

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      Dear Giles, Please find the answers to your questions. a) The water source is either a sanitary-well storing percolated water or a tapped perennial spring. Where it is a well, the entire well is completely protected by a concrete cover b) No pumping is required, as the water source is either a perennial spring or a well, which stores pe...

      Dear Giles,

      Please find the answers to your questions.

      a) The water source is either a sanitary-well storing percolated water or a tapped perennial spring. Where it is a well, the entire well is completely protected by a concrete cover
      b) No pumping is required, as the water source is either a perennial spring or a well, which stores percolated water.
      c) The only storage tank is the village overhead water tank, situated in the village. The capacity is dependant on the size of the village. We base this on the calculation of 40litres of water per person per day
      d + e) The four villages will each have their own gravity flow system, therefore the elevation in comparison to each other is irrelevant.
      f) 40 litres per person per day
      g) The well water is tested for contamination before use, and is continued to be tested. In addition the village water tanks are cleaned on a monthly basis.

  • 2 participants | show more

    The gravity technology

    Gilles Corcos of Agua Para la Vida (APLV)

    This is Gilles Corcos of Agua Para La Vida. My question has to do with the details of the technology that Gram Vitas uses in gravity systems in two instances. I raise it because Agua para la Vida has developed technological advances which are potentially useful for many groups, which are freely available from our website, ...

    This is Gilles Corcos of Agua Para La Vida.
    My question has to do with the details of the technology that Gram Vitas uses in gravity systems in two instances. I raise it because Agua para la Vida has developed technological advances which are potentially useful for many groups, which are freely available from our website, in English (and Spanish) and which we like to see other development organizations use.
    The first deals with the conduction line from the spring to the holding tank. Its main purpose is to size automatically (if desired) both the thicknesses and the diameters of all pipes segments so as to satisfy the various requirements: safe pressure, hydraulic grade line above pipe level, enforcing chosen maximum flow rate and minimum use & precise positioning of automatic air valves - at minimum cost of piping.
    The second is a distribution network design tool which is particularly useful for water stands that are distant and may have large elevation differences. It is made of two programs, one which optimises with respect to cost of piping the design of the network for a statistically probable distribution of open faucets, the second which calculate the flow rate of each faucet under a very large set of combinations of open faucets and provides the statistical behaviour of each faucet undr these scenarios. Both of these programs are easy to use and the second is abundantly explained and justified in a separate manual also available from our site.

    • Joe Madiath of Gram Vikas

      Dear Giles, Thank you for your question and directing us to your website. To fully explain our technologies we have used diagrams, and therefore have had to upload our answer to the uploaded documents section. Please refer to the document entitled "Technology of Gravity-flow systems" I hope this answers your question Thank you

      Dear Giles,

      Thank you for your question and directing us to your website. To fully explain our technologies we have used diagrams, and therefore have had to upload our answer to the uploaded documents section. Please refer to the document entitled "Technology of Gravity-flow systems"

      I hope this answers your question

      Thank you

      • Gilles Corcos of Agua Para la Vida (APLV)

        Unfortunately I was unable to understand the description of the 3 foot wide slit and of the mechanism that brings the water up from the surface of the water in the well to the start of the conduction pipe. Your hand drawn sketches are not revealing enough to me.

        Unfortunately I was unable to understand the description of the 3 foot wide slit and of the mechanism that brings the water up from the surface of the water in the well to the start of the conduction pipe. Your hand drawn sketches are not revealing enough to me.

    • Gilles Corcos of Agua Para la Vida (APLV)

      Unfortunately I was unable to understand the description of the 3 foot wide slit and of the mechanism that brings the water up from the surface of the water in the well to the start of the conduction pipe. Your hand drawn sketches are not revealing enough to me.

      Unfortunately I was unable to understand the description of the 3 foot wide slit and of the mechanism that brings the water up from the surface of the water in the well to the start of the conduction pipe. Your hand drawn sketches are not revealing enough to me.

  • Rating: 10

    review by (only shown to members)

    This is a well thought out application from an organization with a proven track record. I believe it has an excellent possibility of success. Careful thought has been put on both software and hardware. I also appreciate their posture of working on dignity as the background for hygiene and sanitation interventions.

  • Rating: 5

    review by (only shown to members)

    I think the organization is good and the program is worthy. However I find the technical description insufficient. The characteristics of the gravity system are not given. How long the conduction line(s), how long the distribution networks. and the level differences between well, tank and villages. These are elements that govern the cost of the system (in addition of course to the number of water taps and the population served). Also my question about how the water from the well gets over the well edge into the conduction line was not satisfactorily answered either in words or with the sketches. Water can rise without a pump either in a limited way by a siphon or by capillarity. The principle used in this project remains a mystery to me.
    G. Corcos, APLV

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    This is a great application from a top-notch organization.

    Only comment is regarding the reporting: can we see a greater use of the PWX model with brief reports from visits (which i know are frequent) and a solid learnings section since this approach is being emulated by others?

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    Based on the completeness of their application and the detailed answers provided to all the questions asked, it seems that Gram Vikas is well prepared, experienced, and able to carry out this project.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    The technology is simple, indigenous, eco-friendly, requires less maintenance, safe and
    easily accepted by the village community.

    The project design and implementation strategy is well planned and designed assuring the core values of gender, equity, self respect and dignity, active involvement and participation, ownership of the village community in the process of implementation and assurance of the sustainability in the post project period.

    The village selection criteria is a self selection criteria of the villages that each family have to contribute Rs. 1000/- (22$) and it is interesting to know that this amount is being used for the water and sanitation system to the new households to ensure 100% coverage in the village to achieve the open free defecation village.

    Recently we also have implemented similar type of gravity flow water supply system of 1700 m in length by laying underground pipes. It is very difficult to excavate a trench of 3 ft. deep in the hilly area and also requires galvanized pipes to cross the gullies/valleys. This requires technical support and good supervision for the quality of work. I think gramvikas has vast experience in implementing such type of projects.

    As health and hygiene education would be imparted, we suggest that water purification methods could also be practiced by the community.

    The per person cost is very high i.e. 65 $ But looking at the situation and need of the tribal people, it is worthwhile to implement the project.

    Good project. We wish all success in future!

    We strongly recommend this project to PWX

    Thomas Palghadmal