plan 370Community driven, gravity flow piped water supply and sanitation system to four rural communities in Gajapati district

Summary

The project aims to establish protected piped water supply to 150 rural households benefiting 829 people in 4 rural villages at the Gajapati district in the state of Odisha.

Target villages include,

Laxmipur: a tiny tribal hamlet consisting of 36 ho

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Background

Odisha has the dubious distinction of being one of the poorest states in India as 40% of its populations live below poverty line standards. 86% of the population, according to national census, lives in rural villages and access to piped water supply is limited to just 1% of the rural households. The incidence of waterborne diseases has been alarmingly high due to consumption of contaminated water and it pushed the rural communities to remain in the state of vicious circle of poverty.

The operational areas of Gram Vikas have a large tribal population and are physically remote with very poor basic services and facilities, rendering them as districts that have low human development indicators.

The communities depend primarily on agriculture and daily wage labour for subsistence. The vicious cycle of poverty and morbidity work together to keep communities in these areas in a perpetual debt cycle, forcing them to lead sub- human lives devoid of dignity, self-respect, and the capacity to demand and negotiate with external forces for their rightful entitlement.

In this context, the water and sanitation project is an entry point and through the process of 100% inclusion, the aim is to harness the inherent collective potential of poor communities to help them to determine the course of their development.

Location

Laxmipur, Gajpati, Odisha, India

Attachments

  • Doc gravity_...
  • Doc gravity_...
  • Xls Copy_of_...

Focus

Primary Focus: Drinking Water - Households
Secondary Focus: Capacity Building

People Getting Safe Drinking Water: 829

150 families
270 children
281 women
278 men
(Data source: Gram Vikas household surveys)

School Children Getting Water: 64

Gram Vikas household survey

People Getting Sanitation: 829

150 families
270 children
281 women
278 men
(Data source: Gram Vikas household surveys)

People Getting Other Benefits: 580

Provision of potable water and clean sanitation facilities will bring about a qualitative change in the lives of poor and ensure them access to basic human amenities.

The health status of people especially women and children will improve with the reduction in the waterborne diseases as supply of water from a protected water source is established and unsanitary practices like open defecation were eliminated through the construction of Toilets and Bathrooms for each and every household.

Apart from constructing physical infrastructure like TBRs equal emphasis is also laid on enabling a behavioral change in the sanitary practices of people by undertaking vigorous personal and community hygiene campaigns. Since women have a direct role in the health status of family and children as they are the ones who prepare food for the whole family and take care of children, hygiene education will be focusing on and carried out through women groups like SHGs.

Children also act as agents of change; therefore hygiene education will be imparted in schools that encourage children to keep personal cleanliness by using soap after defecation to wash hands, wearing neat dresses, keeping nails short and clean etc.

Individual kitchen gardens are promoted in every household by making use of waste water coming from bathrooms and papaya and banana plants are grown in these gardens. It helps to reduce the chronic issue of nutritional deficiency to a certain extent.

Gram Vikas’ approach also emphasizes on enhancing the vocational skills of rural youth by providing training in masonry. On completion of the training, they construct the toilets, bathing rooms and overhead water tank. Independent studies have later revealed that these trained youths have become successful masons in nearby towns and cities and their employability and income levels have been multiplied.

The entire project is implemented through village executive committees representing all sections of the village community. Democratic process of decision making, social and gender equity and sharing of responsibilities/cost etc will bestow a spirit of unity to the village community and empower them to carry forward the development process initiated.

Application Type: Program Funding

Start Date: 2011-09-01

Completion Date: 2012-01-31

Technology Used:

Gram Vikas has developed a simple yet sustainable concept of gravity flow water supply that has successfully managed to provide continuous water supply in hundreds of remote hilly villages.

In gravity flow, wherever possible water is tapped from a suitable perennial spring. However, if no suitable spring exists, Gram Vikas have developed a highly innovative solution of establishing a sanitary dug well. A slit is cut down one side of the well and a pipe attached at the bottom. The slit is then blocked back up, and the entire well is lined with stones. Water then percolates into the well, where it is stored, and can then be transported to the village overhead water tank. The spring or well are at a higher altitude than the village, therefore the water is transported through pipes using the principles of gravity from where it is again distributed through pipes to all families around the clock. To ensure the pipes are protected, they are dug deep into the ground.

This system has many advantages, for example, it eliminates the need for expensive to run pumps, and requires very little maintenance, making it an economically viable option for remote, and marginalized communities.

In addition, it has environmental benefits, relying purely on the force of gravity to bring the water to the village, and eliminating the need for pumps, with high carbon emissions.

Phases:

The project will be finished in one phase.

Community Organization:

Gram Vikas has designed a sustainable model for community organization and development named MANTRA (Movement and Action Network for the Transformation of Rural Areas), based on five core values of 1) 100% inclusion 2) Gender equity 3) social equity 4) sustainability and 5) cost sharing. Water and sanitation activities have been taken up as entry point activity for initiating all round development of villages.

100% inclusion of all families is a pre-condition for initiating the WATSAN work in a village. This is crucial from a total sanitation point of view, as even if one family continues to practice open defecation, water sources will continue to be polluted. 100% inclusion is also a step towards addressing exclusionary practices prevailing in society –mainly towards Dalits, indigenous communities and women.

Other core values include cost sharing, and gender and social equity. Gram Vikas does not believe in the common attitude of “poor people only need poor solutions.” Gram Vikas motivates and enables communities to overcome deep rooted divisions along lines of caste and gender to come together and achieve high quality solutions, resulting in every household having a toilet, and bathing room, with three taps supplying piped, potable water. Gram Vikas believes that the poor can and will pay for truly beneficial development solutions, however the larger community also has a role in meeting the social cost for families, especially in areas where the government makes no or measly investment in water and sanitation infrastructure.

Before the programme begins in any village, the village must come to a consensus that all families, without exception, will participate. This brings the community together across barriers of caste, gender and economic status, which for centuries have excluded large sections of communities from the process of development. The village must also raise a corpus fund of Rs.1,000 ($22) per household with the better-off paying more and the poorer less. The corpus fund is an acid test, demonstrating that the community is committed to the process of development. Interest from the corpus fund is used to meet the social costs of extending the water and sanitation system to new households in the future, ensuring 100% coverage at all times.

The community drives the implementation of the programme. The community makes the bricks and collects all the local materials available and rural youth trained in masonry build the overhead water tank and lay the network of pipes. 1-2 rural youth are trained as pump operators and are taught how to make any necessary repairs to the system.
The management of the project is undertaken by the Village Executive Committee (VEC) comprising of 6 men and 6 women, all of whom are elected in a democratic way. In addition to constructing the water and sanitation infrastructure, Gram Vikas spend time building the capacities of this committee to enable them to gradually take over the entire responsibility for managing the water and sanitation infrastructure after Gram Vikas’ withdrawal from the village.

Government Interaction:

Gram Vikas is an approved project implementing agency for the government’s Swajaldhara water scheme and is also the implementing agency for Orissa Tribal Empowerment and Livelihood Programme. Gram Vikas also facilitates the BPL households to avail the subsidy of Rs, 2200 under Total Sanitation campaign.

Ancillary activities:

Before construction of the toilets and bathing rooms, young men and women, working as unskilled laborers, are trained in masonry. On completion of the training, they construct the toilets, bathing rooms, and the overhead water tanks. These newly trained masons are assured of work for a period of time if they so desire, many go on to successfully secure lucrative contracts in nearby urban centers, and within a year, their income earning capacity increases by at least three times.

Water shed activities are undertaken on the catchment of the water source especially for gravity fed systems to ensure replenishment of ground water in the aquifers and thereby sustain water supply even in the dry season.

Families are encouraged to do backyard farming with the waste water from the bathing rooms that add to the diet intake at the household level.

Women members are encouraged to form savings and credit groups and initiate small savings after which they are supported to take up Income generating activities.

Other Issues:

Although the government is supposed to provide and secure drinking water to rural communities, most often it ends up by installation of a hand pump in the village. With high use, the pumps often break down and the community depends upon the government functionaries to repair the system. In many instances such delays linger for long and people resort to unsafe surface water for drinking purpose.

Government usually prioritizes bigger villages for implementation of water supply projects and the small, hilly tribal habitations are left to fen for themselves. There is hardly any intervention in these small habitations that can help the people to get safe water.

In this context Gram Vikas prioritizes its efforts in such remote areas and works with the community to have systems to manage their drinking water needs.

Maintenance Revenue:

Empowerment of community: Gram Vikas will facilitate the empowerment of community to ensure the sustainability of the project in the long run. Village executive committees will be formed and registered in each project village and responsibility of maintaining assets will be handed over to them once Gram Vikas withdraws from the project area. Leadership development trainings and exposure visits will be organized for the community leaders.

Corpus fund: To meet the future continuation of sanitation systems, village corpus fund with a contribution of Rs1000/- from each family will be mobilized. Return from it will be utilized for financing the social cost of extending the toilets and bathrooms facilities to new families’ in future and thereby ensuring 100% coverage all time.

Maintenance fund: Villagers also form a maintenance fund from community-led livelihood activities, and household contribution that will cover any cost required for maintenance of the gravity flow system

Capacity building: village youth, both men and women will be trained in masonry that ensures villagers are self-sufficient to make any repairs necessary.

Maintenance Cost: $1,286

Metrics:

Prior art before metrics

Cost: $35,565

Total budget : 35565
Amount requested :28175
Community contribution:7390

Co Funding Amount: $0

Community Contribution Amount: $7,390

The beneficiary community contributes according to their financial and physical abilities towards the establishment of WATSAN assets. It may be in the form of manual labor or gathering locally available raw materials like sand, stones and digging of the pipe line trench.

Fund Requested: $28,175

Implementing Organization:

Attachments

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  • 1 participant | show more

    Proposal

    Juergen Puetz of PALMYRA

    Dear Friend, This proposal seems to be good for the small village that to hill area. It is good to use the fresh natural water for purification and supply it through the pipelines to the poor people. If you can do the water analysis atleast two months in once, it will ensure the quality of the water. Thanks, Dhanam

    Dear Friend,

    This proposal seems to be good for the small village that to hill area.

    It is good to use the fresh natural water for purification and supply it through the pipelines to the poor people.

    If you can do the water analysis atleast two months in once, it will ensure the quality of the water.

    Thanks,

    Dhanam

  • 2 participants | show more

    Queries on Unit cost of individual toilet and subsidy

    Thomas Palgadhmal of Watershed Organization Trust

    Gram Vikas has been doing commendable work in the very backward tribal region of Orissa and has vast experience in rural development. We wish the very best to them. With regard to the application, the budget /design of the gravity flow supply system is perfect. However, has a query about the construction of individual toilet and ba...

    Gram Vikas has been doing commendable work in the very backward tribal region of Orissa and has vast experience in rural development. We wish the very best to them.

    With regard to the application, the budget /design of the gravity flow supply system is perfect. However, has a query about the construction of individual toilet and bathroom. Could you please provide details of the same -
    1. What is the unit cost of one individual toilet and construciton of bathroom?.
    2. The design of the toilet
    3. The subsidy of Rs. 2,200 is only for the BPL families. How do the non-BPL families manage the construction work ? Is there any other subsidies grant for construction of toilets under tribal sub plan?

    Thanks
    Thomas

    • Chitra Chaudhuri of Gram Vikas

      Dear thomas, The unit cost of a toilet and bathing room that GV helps families to construct is Rs. 13500 as of current rate of materials. It is a twin leach pit pour flush model, I will upload the design for your reference, GV mobilises funds on an average of Rs, 3000 per family towards the cost of external materials for the constructio...

      Dear thomas,

      The unit cost of a toilet and bathing room that GV helps families to construct is Rs. 13500 as of current rate of materials. It is a twin leach pit pour flush model, I will upload the design for your reference,

      GV mobilises funds on an average of Rs, 3000 per family towards the cost of external materials for the construction of toilets and bathing rooms, BPL families get and addiitional assistance of Rs. 2200 from the government. The rest of the cost is borne by the respective families. GV wolrs on the 100% approach where the economies of scale come into operation when the entire village arranges the materials for all. This provides a slight reduction in cost, however quite substantial amounts are borne by the families. In many cases local leaders are encouraged to approach their MLA to leverage funds under LAD and this has also provided additional support in many cases.

      One can mobilise resources from the ITDA under tribal sub plan in addiiton to the TSC subsidy,

      Hope the answers help understand better.
      chitra

  • 2 participants | show more

    The 2 options and the no-storage design

    Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

    You have described nicely the 2 options for securing a water source. Isn't there a noticeable difference in costs? Wouldn't the costs change depending on whether a spring is located? I have heard you describe the option to not have a holding tank as the spring provides continuous supply. Have you implemented it? Any experience with it? T...

    You have described nicely the 2 options for securing a water source.
    Isn't there a noticeable difference in costs? Wouldn't the costs change depending on whether a spring is located?

    I have heard you describe the option to not have a holding tank as the spring provides continuous supply. Have you implemented it? Any experience with it?

    Thanks,
    Rajesh

    • Chitra Chaudhuri of Gram Vikas

      Hi rajesh, A small hint on the options will help to answer . We have tried in some villages of not having an overhead water tank but allow the well and the pipeline to act as a storage tank and supply to villages. This is done is villages having less than 40 families. This has worked well only in instances where some houses are located in...

      Hi rajesh,
      A small hint on the options will help to answer .

      We have tried in some villages of not having an overhead water tank but allow the well and the pipeline to act as a storage tank and supply to villages. This is done is villages having less than 40 families. This has worked well only in instances where some houses are located in a higher elevation than others or at the tail end , there is problem of pressure , and those families face difficulty when everybody is using the water (at peak times in the morning or evening), We have tried to use control systems/ valves to overcome but it isvery situation speciifc.

      Chitra

  • 2 participants | show more

    Community contribution funds management

    Rob Bell of El Porvenir

    Dear Chitra, Thanks for your prompt responses to the questions, almost all of my questions are already answered here. Looks like a well thought out project, as usual with GV. One question, more for interests sake: How do you manage the contributions from the community? Do they manage the funds and purchase materials directly or do they...

    Dear Chitra,

    Thanks for your prompt responses to the questions, almost all of my questions are already answered here. Looks like a well thought out project, as usual with GV.

    One question, more for interests sake:

    How do you manage the contributions from the community? Do they manage the funds and purchase materials directly or do they submit that to GV? A new (although an old idea) methodology springing up around here (that we haven't tried yet) is having the community manage the whole process and finances for the project - hiring any foreman/woman, buying materials, etc. rather than the NGO managing it. Just wondering how your methodology looks in this particular.

    We do have community (and municipal) contributions here as well, but our communities manage those funds, but we haven't got to the point of having the communities manage funds beyond that yet. We may pilot something though in the next year or so.

    Thanks,
    Rob

    • Chitra Chaudhuri of Gram Vikas

      Hi rob, As I had explained earlier- GV supports only upto Rs. 3000 per family towards cost of external materials for the toilets and bathing rooms. The option is given to the village committee , if they want to procure materials by themselves- cement, toilet pan etc they are free to do it , in case individual families want to purchase the...

      Hi rob,

      As I had explained earlier- GV supports only upto Rs. 3000 per family towards cost of external materials for the toilets and bathing rooms. The option is given to the village committee , if they want to procure materials by themselves- cement, toilet pan etc they are free to do it , in case individual families want to purchase their own materials, we encourage them to puchase it on their own and GV will reimburse upto Rs. 3000 of the cost of those materials.

      In case of water supply, it also depends upon the villages , we let them know the rates of the materials and the type of materials required, if they are willing to purchase ,they go ahead, else we procure it on their request.

      However for the operations and maintenance, all costs like a pump operator , electricity bill etc is borne by the community only.

      Thanks
      chitra

  • 2 participants | show more

    The pipe in the well technique

    Gilles Corcos of Agua Para la Vida (APLV)

    As for another of your projects I have a technical question: The way you describe dispensing with a surface spring is to insert on the side of the well a pipe which is connected to the conduction line that leads to village tanks. That, I understand to be a siphon. But a siphon only can work if the water is raised something less than 7 me...

    As for another of your projects I have a technical question:
    The way you describe dispensing with a surface spring is to insert on the side of the well a pipe which is connected to the conduction line that leads to village tanks.
    That, I understand to be a siphon. But a siphon only can work if the water is raised something less than 7 meters (depending on the altitude of the well and the air content of the water . Does this mean that the water level in your wells is that high? and incidentally how do you start the siphon, (a minor problem if it works)?

    Gilles Corcos, Agua para la vida

    • Chitra Chaudhuri of Gram Vikas

      The wells are located in a higher altitude than the village and where the water tank is to be placed. There should be a minimum altitude difference of 20 ft between the bottom of the well and the water tower. We insert the pipe about 2.5 ft above the well bottom and as the terrain of the conduction line is undulating and a slope is there...

      The wells are located in a higher altitude than the village and where the water tank is to be placed. There should be a minimum altitude difference of 20 ft between the bottom of the well and the water tower.

      We insert the pipe about 2.5 ft above the well bottom and as the terrain of the conduction line is undulating and a slope is there the water starts flowing into the pipeline.

      We have to put air valves at some intervals especially when there is a rise and fall of the terrain.

      Where the pipe is inserted at the bottom, we also seal the opening with some cement mortar so that water does not leak out through the other gaps.

      Hope this helps
      chitra

  • 3 participants | show more

    Various issues

    Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

    Hi, Gram Vikas has experience of several years in many areas and on many different types of projects. Glad to be a reviewer of this application because this is how we learn from others. Here are my questions: 1. I agree with Dhanam about testing drinking/cooking water for contaminants. Advisable to have analysis, chemical and bacteriol...

    Hi,
    Gram Vikas has experience of several years in many areas and on many different types of projects. Glad to be a reviewer of this application because this is how we learn from others. Here are my questions:

    1. I agree with Dhanam about testing drinking/cooking water for contaminants. Advisable to have analysis, chemical and bacteriological, done before construction, if possible, unless you already have the reports from other sources. Followed by at least once a year, only the probable ones for instance bacteria if the source is an open spring.

    2. The maintenance cost is $1286. There is no explanation of what kind of maintenance is required for such water system and sanitation.

    3. And I may have missed out how will the maintenance money be generated as at the initial stage the community is contributing $7390. This amount comes from collecting INR 1000 from each of the 150 families. Please correct me if I understood wrong. That adds upto INR 150000 ($3409 with exchange rate being 44). Does this mean each family will contribute 2000 for water supply and sanitation?

    4. Is the budget for the sanitation project submitted elsewhere? For the excel file contains budget for water system for 4 villages and detail on one sheet.

    5. Do you have any pictures of this http://peerwater.org/projects/157 project uploaded after completion? Can you kindly direct it to me.

    6. It definitely gets hard to track the activities of the staff and the field workers once the organization gets big. Do you log current monthly/quarterly/annual reports of the historical projects in your organization? If so how?

    Thank you
    Best Wishes

    • Chitra Chaudhuri of Gram Vikas

      Hi Meera, I had sent a detailed mail to your queries, but am confused whether you received them or not , since I am not able to view the answers! Can you please confirm whether the reply from my side has reached you? thanks sincerley, chitra

      Hi Meera,
      I had sent a detailed mail to your queries, but am confused whether you received them or not , since I am not able to view the answers! Can you please confirm whether the reply from my side has reached you?

      thanks
      sincerley,
      chitra

      • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

        Hi Chitra, No i have not received any email yet. Will keep checking. Thanks.

        Hi Chitra, No i have not received any email yet. Will keep checking. Thanks.

      • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

        Hi Chitra, As I am traveling and my laptop computer is busted I cannot access my email sent to berkeley.edu for I use outlook. can you kindly upload your response here before 25th. thanks meera

        Hi Chitra,

        As I am traveling and my laptop computer is busted I cannot access my email sent to berkeley.edu for I use outlook. can you kindly upload your response here before 25th.
        thanks
        meera

        • Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

          Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application. That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

          Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application.

          That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

      • Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

        Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application. That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

        Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application.

        That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hi Chitra, No i have not received any email yet. Will keep checking. Thanks.

      Hi Chitra, No i have not received any email yet. Will keep checking. Thanks.

    • Meera Hira-Smith of Project Well

      Hi Chitra, As I am traveling and my laptop computer is busted I cannot access my email sent to berkeley.edu for I use outlook. can you kindly upload your response here before 25th. thanks meera

      Hi Chitra,

      As I am traveling and my laptop computer is busted I cannot access my email sent to berkeley.edu for I use outlook. can you kindly upload your response here before 25th.
      thanks
      meera

      • Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

        Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application. That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

        Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application.

        That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

    • Rajesh Shah of Blue Planet Network

      Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application. That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

      Please share that mail info with all the reviewers. I am sure all of that is of interest to all and also helpful in understanding this application.

      That's the whole point of this peer review, to eliminate bi-lateral exchanges of information that can get lost and do not benefit the greater community.

    • Chitra Chaudhuri of Gram Vikas

      Dear Meera, I once again attempt to answer to your queries. 1. We do test the water quality using easy field test kits for parameters like pH, Nitrate, suplhate, carbonate hardness, total hardness, chloride, iron. We usually donot collect surface water, we make an "intake well beside a stream or where the topography allows for making an ...

      Dear Meera,

      I once again attempt to answer to your queries.

      1. We do test the water quality using easy field test kits for parameters like pH, Nitrate, suplhate, carbonate hardness, total hardness, chloride, iron. We usually donot collect surface water, we make an "intake well beside a stream or where the topography allows for making an intake well that could yield water. The side of the well is cut and a pipe inserted at the bottom of the well, and the well is bound and covered . the water flows in the pipe through natural gravity pressure.

      2. In gravity systems there is minimal maintenance , however we ask the people to raise a fund in case they need to replace pipes. Therefore Rs. 30 per family per month is collected and the calculation is done for 150 families for an year.

      3Rs. 1000 per family is collected at the start of construction. GV does the construction in two phases- first the toilets are built and thereafter the water. The Rs. 1000 per family is depoosited in a term deposit in the bank which generates interest and that is used to support new families in the village after GV withdraws.This is a one time contribution,
      4. The budget for the toilets has been sanctioned in the last year as the villages mentioned in the list have nearly completed the construction of toilets and bathing rooms and are ready to do the water supply.

      5.GV ahs an internal monitoring system where at the start a Village profile and household survey is done, thereafter Monthly progress reports come from each village, field visits are done to assess the progress and in review meetings the Coordinator and staff present the progress. All these systems help track the progress of work.

      Does this help?

      chitra

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    No report on the 195,511 project on water, sanitation and beyond. Would like to see more recent reports on the historical projects implemented so far.

  • Rating: 4

    review by (only shown to members)

    In this project the costs are commendably low. I find several of the technical details of the construction too vague.

    As a professor of fluid mechanics at the Univ. of Berkeley for many many years, I can tell you that the hydraulics explained by Chitra are completely wrong. As my latest comments indicate, perhaps this is due to the fact that the presenter is technically innocent and that the scheme works but if it does, it works in an entirely different way. So on technical ground I would oppose the project until some valid explanation for the proposed method is advanced.

    On the community organization level, the project seems solid.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    Good clear project - an extension of the decades of experience.
    Communication on the platform and post-implementation has been an issue. Hope GV shares more, we have a lot to learn from their decades of experience and experimentation.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    The project have simple method to harvest water from the hill area and supplying the water to the households based on the gravity than the energy. This is an environment friendly activity.

  • Rating: 8

    review by (only shown to members)

    We recommend this project for the PWX funding . The reply of the query to GV is awaited and the rating is given as today is recycle end date.

  • Rating: 9

    review by (only shown to members)

    Excellent. No doubts in my mind, this is worthy of funding.

    Some items, especially summary are cut off in application, and could have been a little clearer on the sanitation piece, but the Q&A cleared everything up.